Monthly Archives: November 2012

History of Essential oil Perfumery and Methods of Extracting Herbs

I realize that most people don’t know much about perfume making, but perfume making has a long history. To illustrate my point regarding why Naphtha is not a good solvent to make a cancer cure therapy, I’ll share with you a bit of the history of extracting botanicals and the science behind it.

I’ve been making my own perfume since I was a little girl….. we’d go gather fragrant wildflowers and make lovely little blends… Think about the history of collecting a bouquet of flowers to take to a girl you favor… Our ancestors did things with purpose. A girl who would make a good wife would know how to take those flowers and create perfume with them… if you can extract perfume, you likely have some knowledge of plants and herbs. If you have knowledge of plants and herbs, you are likely a fair cook and a source of healing for any illnesses in the children, thus the way a maiden handled her bouquet could let the gentleman in question know how skilled a wife she may make.

This post is an excerpt from article at the link.

So just what are essential oils? what is their history? why do we make them? what are they good for?

An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils or aetherolea, or simply as the “oil of” the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove. An oil is “essential” in the sense that it carries a distinctive scent, or essence, of the plant. Essential oils do not form a distinctive category for any medical, pharmacological, or culinary purpose.

Essential oils are generally extracted by distillation. Steam distillation is often used. Other processes include expression or solvent extraction. They are used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and other products, for flavoring food and drink, and for adding scents to incense and household cleaning products.
Various essential oils have been used medicinally at different periods in history. Medical applications proposed by those who sell medicinal oils range from skin treatments to remedies for cancer, and often are based solely on historical accounts of use of essential oils for these purposes. Claims for the efficacy of medical treatments and treatment of cancers in particular, are now subject to regulation in most countries.
As the use of essential oils has declined in evidence-based medicine, one must consult older textbooks for much information on their use.[1][2] Modern works are less inclined to generalize; rather than refer to “essential oils” as a class at all, they prefer to discuss specific compounds, such as methyl salicylate, rather than “oil of wintergreen”.[3][4]
Interest in essential oils has revived in recent decades with the popularity of aromatherapy, a branch of alternative medicine that claims that essential oils and other aromatic compounds have curative effects. Oils are volatilized or diluted in a carrier oil and used in massage, diffused in the air by a nebulizer, heated over a candle flame, or burned as incense.
The techniques and methods first used to produce essential oils were first mentioned by Ibn al-Baitar (1188–1248), an Andalusian physician, pharmacist and chemist.[5]

ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essential_oil

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The History of Essential Oils

The origins of the holistic method of healing known today as aromatherapy dates back to 18,000 BC. Cave paintings in Lascaux, France depict the burning of aromatic plants, thought to be used to drive out evil spirits. Essential oils have been used in Ayurveda (traditional Indian medicine) for several hundred years. They were used in ancient Greece and Rome and there has been documentation as far back as 2800 BC, during the reign of Khufu in ancient Egypt, of oils, wines and i
ncenses being infused with plant essences. The concentrated plant essences are extracted from leaves, seeds, bark or other plant elements by either distillation or cold pressing. The plant essences are then combined with what’s called a carrier oil and thus they become ‘essential oils’. Carrier oils are generally vegetable oils similar to the oils that we cook with except that are cold pressed to maintain their healing properties.
Essential oils are used to promote healing in both the body and mind. They are found in many bath and body products as well as in candles and various other types of fragrance diffusers sold around the world. They may be inhaled, absorbed through the skin or ingested in food. When inhaled the oils are absorbed into the bloodstream, through the blood vessels in the lungs, and consequently circulated throughout the body. A few drops of essential oil may be added to a bath, massage oil, lotion, or candle to deliver their healing benefits. They are often used in fragrancers to disperse their scent more effectively over a period of time. Fragrancers diffuse the oil into the air through steam, mist, dry heat or evaporation (using a fan). In a pinch 3- 5 drops of an essential oil of your choosing in a cup of hot water will do.When shopping for essential oils the term “wildcrafted” pops up periodically. Wildcrafted plants are gathered from their natural, wild habitat and generally wildcrafting would entail taking only the small parts that are necessary so that the plant remains alive and flourishes. If the whole plant is needed then seeds are taken from the plant and replanted in the same area to maintain the balance.

The following is a list of several essential oils and the ailments that they are used to treat. There are hundreds of different essential oils and each one has a number of healing properties. If you are interested in learning more there is a wealth of information on the Internet or you may also find information at your local health food store. Many health food stores have resource guides available to their customers.

Jasmine – Anxiety, Catarrh, Confidence Booster, Cough, Headache, Laryngitis, Mental Tension, Sensitive or Dry Skin

Tea Tree – Age Spots, Athlete’s Foot, Boils, Burns, Catarrh, Colds, Corns, Cystitis, Dandruff, Fungal Infections, Immune System Booster, Itching, Sunburn, Urinary Tract Infections, Warts

Lavender – Acne, Anxiety, Bronchitis, Burns, Catarrh, Chilblains, Circulatory Problems, Colds, Dandruff, Eczema, Flu, Headaches, Insect Bites, Insomnia, Muscle Aches and Pains, PMS Symptoms, Psoriasis, Rheumatism, Sinusitis, Skin Problems, Sunburn, Tension, Throat Infection, Wounds and Sores

Rosemary – Burns, Cellulite, Colds, Digestive Problems, Fatigue, Flu, Gout, Liver and Gall Bladder Problems, Oily Skin, Poor Circulation, Rheumatism, Water Retention, Wounds

Eucalyptus – Air Disinfectant, Asthma, Bronchitis, Burns, Cuts, Decongestant, Flu, Headaches, Insect Repellant, Muscle Aches, Rheumatism, Sinusitis, Skin Ulcers, Urinary Infections, Wounds

Marjoram – Anxiety, Arthritis, Bronchitis, Bruises, Colic, Constipation, Digestive Problems, Flatulence, Insomnia, Muscle Aches and Pains, PMS Symptoms, Rheumatism, Sinusitis, Sprains

Bergamot – Abscesses, Acne, Boils, Chicken Pox, Colds, Cold Sores, Cystitis, Flatulence, Loss of Appetite, Mouth Infections, Sore Throat

Basil – Bronchitis, Colds, Constipation, Insect Bites, Mental Fatigue, Migraine, Nervous Tension, Rheumatism, Sinus Congestion.

Clary Sage – Asthma, Depression, Digestive Problems, Exhaustion, Muscle Cramps and Spasms, PMS Relief, Respiratory Problems

Ginger – Arthritis, Bronchitis, Catarrh, Colds, Colic, Constipation, Diarrhea, Exhaustion, Flatulence, Flu, Indigestion, Poor Circulation, Rheumatism, Sinusitis

Sandalwood – Anxiety, Bronchitis, Cystitis, Fatigue, Frigidity, Impotence, Immune System Booster, Nervous Tension, Skin Conditions (such as acne, dry skin, eczema), Sore Throat, Stress, Urinary Infections, Water Retention

Myrrh – Arthritis, Bronchitis, Colds, Cough, Digestive Problems, Mouth and Gum Problems, Stimulates Immune System

Rose – Aging Skin, Broken Veins, Depression, Dry Skin, Headache, Insomnia, PMS Symptoms, Sensitive Skin, Sore Throat, Stress

Ylang Ylang – Anxiety, High Blood Pressure, Intestinal Problems, Sexual Dysfunction, Stress

The following is a list of conditions that it has been recommended the corresponding oils not be used under. If you have questions consult a medical herbalist.

During Pregnancy Do Not Use – Basil, Cinnamon, Clary Sage, Cypress, Fennel, Jasmine, Juniper, Marjoram, Myrrh, Origanum, Pennyroyal, Peppermint, Rose, Rosemary, Sage, Savory and Thyme

While Breast Feeding Do Not Use – Mint, Parsley, Sage and Jasmine

If You Have High Blood Pressure Do Not Use – Cypress, Eucalyptus, Ginger, Rose, Rosemary, Sage and Thyme

If You Have Low Blood Pressure Do Not Use – Clary sage, Garlic, Lavender, Lemon, Marjoram and Ylang Ylang

If You Have Epilepsy Do Not Use – Fennel, Hyssop, Rosemary, Sage and Wormwood

Use care when using heavy machinery or driving if you are using Clary Sage and Vertivert

Use care when combining Clary Sage with alcohol.

Essential oils have amazing healing abilities and when used properly they can be quite effective. To assure the most effective treatment as well as avoid any potential problems one should always seek out the advice of a qualified practitioner when using essential oils as with any other method of healing, holistic or otherwise.

Sources:
http://www.holisticshop.co.uk/library/b_ess.html
http://www.sunflowerstudio.co.uk/url/AromatherapyHistory.php
http://www.spiritsofnativelight.org/aromatherapy.htm

ref: http://voices.yahoo.com/history-essential-oils-their-medical-847407.html

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More History:

Essential oils are the subtle, aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from the flowers, seeds, leaves, stems, bark and roots of herbs, bushes, shrubs and trees through distillation. In the craft of alchemy, the soul of a plant is its oil, while its spirit is the plant’s alcohol or tincture. According to ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics and Chinese manuscripts, priests and alchemists were using essential oils thousands of y

ears ago to heal the sick. They are the oldest form of medicine and cosmetic known to man and were considered more valuable than gold to the ancients.The ancient Egyptians believed that the sense of smell and ability to detect odors was the most important of our sensory abilities. The considered the sense of smell far more important than sight or even the ability to think. That was because they knew the importance of odors to increase our intrinsic “frequency” and transform us. The utchat pendant shown here, found on the mummy of Tutankhamen, depicts the alchemy of spiritual nourishment both in the afterlife and in the created world. This is the Eye of Ra, symbolizing the Sun and solar energies. It is flanked by Nekhebet the Vulture of Upper Egypt (female intuitive consciousness that becomes pregnant by the Wind) and the Cobra of Lower Egypt (masculine intellectual consciousness that creates existence from duality). Together, the Vulture and Cobra make up the diadem (Third Eye) crown of the pharaohs.The physical eye is the part of the body able to perceive light and is therefore the symbol for spiritual abilities and energy. Egyptian texts that describe the Eye of Ra, portray it in terms of “eating” or absorbing spiritual “food” through the various senses. The senses are ordered according to their importance and how much energy must be “eaten” for an individual to receive a particular sensation or utilize the energy. In this scheme, all sensory data input is considered “food” on the spiritual level. In fact, the amount of spiritual energy derived from this metaphysical feasting is precisely expressed, and the construction of the Eye of Ra follows very definite laws. The parts of the sacred eye are assigned fractional values of the total spiritual nutrition available to us, which is 1 = 64/64 heqat. (The following sensory input channels total 63/64. According to legend, the missing 1/64th is the magical and infinite yet hidden energy supplied by Thoth.) The basic measure of sensory eating is called the “ro” and is equal to one “mouthful.” 320 ro = 1 heqat or one “handful” of food from the sun. The energy intake is assigned as follows: 1/64 heqat = Energy of Touch (physical sensation symbolized by a stalk planted in the ground supporting the eye at the center); 1/32 heqat = Energy of Taste (symbolized by the curly grain or wheat sprout from comes from the planted stalk); 1/16 heqat = Energy of Hearing (symbolized by the left part of eye that points to ear, which absorbs vibration); 1/8 heqat = Energy of Thought (symbolized by the eyebrow that expresses thought and reacts to it); 1/4 heqat = Energy of Sight (symbolized by the pupil of eye that absorbs light images or crystallized thoughtforms). However, the most energy absorption available to the human is assigned to the nose. 1/2 heqat = Energy of Smell (symbolized by the right part of eye that points toward the nose). Smell, then, represents the subtlest sense of odor and intuition, which was the soul-centered “Intelligence of the Heart” to the Egyptians. Without this higher nourishment, our spirit starves, becomes weak, and eventually dies.Oils have been used throughout history to evoke altered states of consciousness and initiate individuals into certain spiritual traditions. To “anoit” (from the Latin inunctus – “to smear with oil) is to make a person sacred, to set them apart and dedicate them to serve a higher spiritual purpose. In fact, the Bible refers to the use of anoiting oils over 150 times, and the Hebrew form of “messiah” and the Greek form of Christ literally mean “anointed.”Our modern science is only now beginning to investigate the incredible healing energy found in essential oils. Clinical research shows, for instance, that frankincense oil contains very high immune stimulating properties. The effectiveness of essential oils cannot be fully understood without some discussion of frequency. Frequency is the measurable rate of electrical energy flow that is constant between any two points. Everything has a frequency. Dr. Robert O. Becker in his book The Body Electric establishes that the human body has an electrical frequency and that much about a person’s health can be determined by it’s frequency. In 1992, Bruce Tainio of Tainio Technology, an independent division of Eastern State University in Cheny, Washington, built the first frequency monitor in the world. Tainio has determined that the average frequency of the human body during the daytime is 62-68 Hz. (A healthy body frequency is in the range of 62-72 Hz.) When the frequency drops, the immune system is compromised. If the frequency drops to 58 Hz, cold and flu symptoms appear, at 55 Hz, diseases like Candida take hold, at 52 Hz, Epstein Bar and at 42 Hz, Cancer.According to Dr. Royal R. Rife, every disease has a frequency. He found that certain frequencies can prevent development of disease and that others would destroy disease. Substances with higher frequency will destroy diseases of a lower frequency. The study of frequencies raises important questions concerning the frequencies of substances we eat, breath and absorb. Many pollutants lower healthy frequency. Processed/canned foods have a frequency of zero. Fresh produce has up to 15 Hz, dry herbs from 12 to 22 Hz, and fresh herbs from 20 to 27 Hz. Essential oils start at 52 Hz and go as high as 320 Hz, which is the frequency of Turkish rose oil. Clinical research shows that essential oils have the highest frequency of any natural substance known to man, creating an environment in which disease, bacteria, virus, fungus, etc., cannot survive.The penetrating characteristic of essential oils greatly enhances their ability to be effective. Essential oils will penetrate into the body when applied to the skin. An essential oil placed on the foot will be distributed to every cell in the body in 21 minutes. They will even penetrate a finger or toe nail to treat fungus underneath. The oils may be sniffed from cupped hands or diffused to elicit higher vibrations or states of consciousness during meditation. They may also be applied topically on the chakra points, neck, face, wrists, ankles, back, behind the ears, on the reflexology points on the bottom of the feet, or added to bath water, or worn as a perfume or cologne to raise the level of your personal environment.ref: http://www.crucible.org/oils_history.htm
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And now that we have a framework of the history of extracting essential oils, lets talk extraction methods commonly used to create these precious essences.

Distillation of essential oils

We owe a great debt to the Arabian alchemist (and physician) Ibn Sina – also known as Avicenna, who lived 980 – 1037 AD, since he was the first one to perfect steam distillation – and his process was so good that it stayed unchanged for a couple of hundred years.

Distillation of essential oils

Distillation converts the volatile liquid (the essential oils) into a vapor and then condenses the vapor back into a liquid – it is the most popular, and cost effective method in use today in producing essential oils.

The downside of distillation is the fact that heat is used in this extraction method, which makes it totally unacceptable for use on very fragile material, or where the oils are extracted with great difficulty.

When this method of extraction is applied, great care has to be taken with the temperature and length of exposure of the heat to prevent damage to the oils.

For more information please click the appropriate hyperlink Distillation of essential oils avicenna steam distillation

Ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/distillation.htm

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Water distillation in the extraction of essential oils

In the manufacture of essential oils using the method of water distillation, the botanic material is completely immersed in water and the still is brought to the boil. This method protects the oils so extracted to a certain degree since the surrounding water acts as a barrier to prevent it from overheating.

water distillation extraction of essential oils

When the condensed material cools down, the water and essential oil is separated and the oil decanted to be used as essential oil.

The water that is so separated in this process is also used and is marketed as “floral waters” (also called hydrosol orsweet water) – such as rosewater, lavender water and orange water.

Water distillation can be done at reduced pressure (under vacuum) to reduce the temperature to less than 100 degrees, which is beneficial in protecting the botanical material, as well as the essential oils.

Neroli oil, which is sensitive to heat, can therefore be successfully extracted using this method.

If extended exposure to hot water is not indicated for a particular plant – such as lavender, it is best to find an extraction method better suited. Any botanical material that contains high amounts of esters do not take well to this extraction method, since the extended exposure to hot water will start to break down the esters to the resultant alcohols and carboxylic acids.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/water-distillation.htm

Steam distillation of essential oil manufacture.

When steam distillation is used in the manufacture and extraction of essential oils, the botanical material is placed in a still and steam is forced over the material.

steam distrillation of essential oil

The hot steam helps to release the aromatic molecules from the plant material since the steam forces open the pockets in which the oils are kept in the plant material. The molecules of these volatile oils then escape from the plant material and evaporate into the steam.

The temperature of the steam needs to be carefully controlled – just enough to force the plant material to let go of the essential oil, yet not too hot as to burn the plant material or the essential oil.

The steam which then contains the essential oil, is passed through a cooling system to condense the steam, which forms a liquid from which the essential oil and water is then separated.

The steam is produced at greater pressure than the atmosphere and therefore boils at above 100 degrees Celsius which facilitates the removal of the essential oil from the plant material at a faster rate and in so doing prevents damage to the oil.

Some oils, like Lavender is heat sensitive (thermolabile) and with this extraction method, the oil is not damaged and ingredients like linalyl acetate will not decompose to linalool and acetic acid.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/steam-distillation.htm

Hydro diffusion in essential oil manufacture

When essential oils are extracted using hydro diffusion it is a type of steam distillation, and only varies in the actual way in which the steam is introduced into the still. With hydro diffusion the steam is fed in from the top onto the botanical material instead of from the bottom as in normal steam distillation.

hydro,diffusion

The condensation of the oil containing steam mixture occurs below the area in which the botanical material is held in place by a grill. The main advantage of this method is that less steam is used, shorter processing time and a higher oil yield.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/hydro-diffusion.htm

Cohobation in essential oil extraction

When rose oil is extracted during water distillation, the one main constituent – phenyl ethyl alcohol – dissolves into the water of the distillation still and does not form part of the essential oil that is so extracted.

cohobation rose otto

The oil so extracted is therefore not whole, and is deficient in this rose-smelling ingredient – and in order to produce a “complete” oil, the phenyl ethyl alcohol needs to be distilled from the water in which it dissolved and added back to the “incomplete oil”.

When this phenyl ethyl alcohol is so distilled, it is added back to the original distillate, in the correct proportion, to form a complete and whole rose oil, and is then called Rose Otto.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/cohobation.htm

Rectification in extraction of essential oils

When an essential oil contains any impurities, it can be purified by re-distillation – either in steam or in a vacuum, and this purification by re-distillation is referred to as rectification.

Rectification in extraction of essential oils

An example of this is eucalyptus oil that is marketed as “double-distilled”. This is not the same as chemical or heat refining and is used to produce oil of standard quality.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/rectification.htm

Combination water and steam distillation

This process is basically a marriage between normal water distillation and that of steam distillation.

The botanical material is immersed in water in a still, which has a heat source, plus live steam is fed into the water and botanical material mixture.

combination distilling Water and steam distillation of essential oils

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/water-steam-distillation.htm

Fractional distillation

When people talk about fractional distillation, it refers to a normal distillation process, but instead of the essential oil being collected continuously, it is collected in batches (the fractions that are referred to) and material normally so extracted isYlang-Ylang.

fractional,distillation

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/fractional-distillation.htm

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Expression extraction in essential oil manufacture

When a “cold pressed” method is referred to in the manufacture of carrier oil and essential oils, it basically refers to the expression method, since no heat is involved in this method.

essential oil manufacture

Most nut and seed oils are also extracted using a “cold pressed” method but here oil is forced from the material under high mechanical pressure and generally produces a good quality oil, but some manufacturers do impair this good quality by excessively refining the oil after extraction by means of chemicals or high heat.

But when we return to look at the expression method of extraction in the manufacture of essential oils, we find that most citrus essential oils are extracted this way and that three different ways are used to accomplish it:

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/expression.htm

Sponge extraction process

Most citrus essences are extracted by means of expression, and in the past were done by hand where the fruit pulp was removed, with the rind and pith then soaked in warm water to make the rind more pliable, since the pith of the fruit absorbed the water.

sponge,extraction

After the fruit has absorbed the water and become more elastic, it was inverted which helped to rupture the oil cells and a sponge placed next to the rind. It was then squeezed to release the volatile oil, which was then collected directly into the sponge.

As soon as the sponge became saturated with oil, it was squeezed and the essential oil collected in a vessel and then decanted.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/sponge-expression.htm

Écuelle à piquer extraction process

This form of expression extraction is used mainly to obtain citrus essential oils, and is a little less labor intensive than that of the sponge method.

ecuelle a piquer essential oil extraction punturing oil cells in peel

This more modern way of essential oil extraction is referred to as the écuelle à piquer process (direct translation = basin, to prick/stick/prod) where the fruit is placed in a device and rotated with spikes on the side puncturing the oil cells in the skin of the fruit.

This cause the oil cells to rupture and the essential oil, and other material such as pigment, to run down to the center of the device, which contains a collection area.

The liquid is thereafter separated and the oil is removed from the water-based parts of the mixture and decanted.

http://www.essentialoils.co.za/ecuelle-a-piquer.htm

Machine abrasion to produce essential oil

This method of expression extraction is very much like the écuelle à piquer method, and is mostly used in the manufacture of citrus essential oils.

machine abrasion extraction

With machine abrasion a machine strips off the outer peel, which is then removed by running water and is then fed into a centrifugal separator.

The centrifugal separation is done extremely fast but it should be noted that due to the fact that the essential oil is combined with other cell content for some time, some alteration could occur due to enzymatic action.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/machine-abrasion.htm

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SOLVENT EXTRACTION

Solvent extraction and essential oil

When we talk about the broad term of solvent extraction, it does not only refer to chemical solvents like hexane, but also to other forms – such as solid oil and fat as well as carbon dioxide.

solvent extraction

Solvent extraction is particularly suitable for botanical material that has a very low yield of essential oil, or where it is made up of mostly resinous components and as such delivers a far finer fragrance than that of distillation.

During this type of extraction, non-volatile components of the botanical material – such as waxes and pigments are also extracted and in some cases this is then removed during another process.

Under solvent extraction we list the following methods:

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/solvent-extraction.htm

Maceration extraction method

With the maceration extraction method, the flowers are soaked in hot oil to have their cell membranes ruptured and the hot oil then absorbs the essence. The oil is then cleared of the botanical and decanted.

maceration oils Maceration extraction essential oil infused oil

This is very much the same technique used in solvent extractions, where solvents are used instead of the hot oil as used in maceration.

http://www.essentialoils.co.za/maceration.htm

Enfleurage extraction of essential oils

Enfleurage could be compared to certain aspects employed in maceration, but is done in a slightly different way.

enfleurage extraction essential oils chassis en verre pour l'enfleurage

Glass plates in a frame (called a chassis) are covered with highly purified and odorless vegetable or animal fat and the petals of the botanical matter that are being extracted are spread across it and pressed in. The flowers are normally freshly picked before so encased in their fatty bed.

Time left in the fat on the chassis Enfleurage extraction of essential oils

The petals remain in this greasy compound for a few days or a couple of weeks (depending on the botanic material used) to allow the essence to disperse into the compound, where the then depleted petals are removed and replaced with a fresh harvest of petals.

This process is repeated until the greasy mix is saturated with the essence, and needs to be repeated a couple of times until saturation is achieved.

Enfleurage extraction of essential oils

When the mix has reached saturation point the flowers are removed and the enfleurage pomade – the fat and fragrant oil – then washed with alcohol to separate the extract from the remaining fat, which is then used to make soap.

As soon as the alcohol evaporates from the mixture you are left with the essential oil. This is a very labor-intensive way of extraction, and needless to say a very costly way to obtain essential oil and is nowadays only sometimes used to extract essential oil from tuberoses and jasmine.

http://www.essentialoils.co.za/enfleurage.htm

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Solvent extraction in essential oil manufacture

Essential oils can be extracted by using solvents such as petroleum ether, methanol, ethanol or hexane and is often used on fragile material such as jasminehyacinthnarcissus and tuberose, which would not be able to handle the heat of steam distillation.

hydrocarbon solvent extraction essential oil

A solvent extracted essential oil is very concentrated and is very close to the natural fragrance of the material used.

Although solvent extraction is used extensively, some people do not believe that it should be used for aromatherapy oils since a residue of solvent could be present in the finished product.

Some reports site a solvent residue of 6 – 20% still present in the finished extraction, but this was normally the case when benzene was the standard solvent used.

With hexane (a hydrocarbon) as the solvent material the solvent residue goes down to about 10 ppm (parts per million) and this is a extremely low concentration of solvent in the resultant product.

As mentioned, benzene is no longer used in the extraction method, since it is regarded as carcinogenic (cancer forming).

After the plant material has been treated with the solvent, it produces a waxy aromatic compound referred to as a “concrete“.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/solvent.htm

Hypercritical Carbon Dioxide gas
CO2 extraction of essential oils

The use of hypercritical carbon dioxide extraction is a fairly new way to extract essential oils from botanical material and although a bit on the expensive side, does yield good quality oils.

CO2 extraction essential oils hypercritical carbon dioxide gas

Carbon dioxide becomes hypercritical at 33 degrees Celsius, which is a state in which it is not really gas or liquid, but has qualities of both, and is an excellent solvent to use in the extraction of essential oils since the low temperature required and the fact that the process is near to instantaneous.

The carbon dioxide is furthermore inert and therefore does not chemically interact with the essence that is being extracted. To remove the carbon dioxide solvent, you simply need to remove the pressure under which it is kept.

This process has to take place in a closed chamber for the hypercritical pressure required for carbon dioxide is 200 atmospheres – that is 200 times the pressure of normal atmosphere.

To achieve this type of pressure some heavy-duty stainless steel equipment is required, and this is where high capital investment is required for this extraction method.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/hypercritical-c02-carbon-dioxide.htm

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Why is the art of perfume making important? Safety, purity of medications as well as spiritual use.

Sula Benet (1903 – 1982), also known as Sara Benetowa, was a Polish anthropologist of the 20th century who studied Polish and Judaic customs and traditions.

Contents

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[edit]Biography

Born in Poland, Benet was fascinated with peasant culture of Poland since her early youth. This interest eventually led her to enroll as a student of literature and philosophy in the Faculty of Humanities in the University of Warsaw but graduated with a degree in anthropology. Upon receiving her degree in 1935, she attended graduate school at Columbia University, where she received her doctorate in 1944.

[edit]Works

  • Festive recipes and festival menus 1957
  • Song, Dance, and Customs of Peasant Poland[when?]
  • Riddles of many lands Carl Withers, Sula Benet – 1956
  • Early Diffusion and Folk Uses of Hemp. 1967
  • Abkhasians: the long-living people of the Caucasus 1974
  • How to live to be 100: the life-style of the people of the Caucasus 1976

[edit]Early Diffusion and Folk Uses of Hemp. 1967

Benet’s writings have gained modern notability[citation needed] for her interpretations of the herb appearing in Hebrew text as kaneh-bosim (Hebrew קְנֵה-בֹשֶׂם) five times in the Hebrew Bible and how it relates to the religious use of cannabisKaneh-bosm is mentioned twice as part of the holy anointing oil used in the temple, and has been interpreted traditionally as calamus (an herb that is known in North American shamanism and in vedic atharva and has been discovered in modern times to contain a molecule known as Asarone that is a precursor of trimethoxyamphetamine, a psychedelic). Through comparative etymology, analysis of ancient texts (including pre-Hebrew Semitic language), and pharmacological consistencies she contends that the word kaneh-bosm actually refers to cannabis and was used in ancient Jewish religious rites, as a medicine and ritual sacrament. Benet’s work claims that cannabis use has a long culturally important history, and that the criminalization and demonization of cannabis is a recent invention (an occurrence of the previous century compared to Torah: dating back at least 3,000 years). While Benet’s conclusion regarding the psychoactive use of cannabis are not generally recognized among Jewishscholars, there is general agreement that hemp (“Kaneh”) is used in talmudic sources to refer to hemp fibers, as hemp was a vital commodity before linen replaced it.[1] Benet claims that traditional identifications of kaneh bosom do not account for hemp shirts being produced from industrial hemp, which Benet claims is “Kaneh” in Hebrew.[2] Benet claims that this kaneh differs from the “fragrant” or “sweet” hemp called especially kaneh bosm, because the latter produces much more of aromatic and psychotropic substances like CBD and THC.[2] [3]

Exodus records Moses receiving the instructions for making and distributing the holy anointing oil, as follows:

Then the LORD said to Moses, “Take the following fine spices: 500 shekels of liquid myrrh, half as much of fragrant cinnamon, 250 shekels of kaneh bosm, 500 shekels of cassia – all according to the sanctuary shekel–and a hind of olive oil. Make these into a sacred anointing oil” (Exodus 30: 22-33)

The Hebrew term kaneh (קָנֶה) is the standard Hebrew word for “cane” or “reed,” occurring 62 times in the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible [4] It usually occurs without the adjective “sweet,” and is translated “reed,” though twice as calamus (Song of Songs 4:14 and Ezekiel 27:19 KJV). It occurs with the adjective “sweet” in three places (Exodus 30:22-33, Isaiah 43:24, Jeremiah 6:20), where kaneh bosm is typically translated as “calamus,” “sweet cane” or “fragrant cane” in English versions.

Sula Benet’s theory is not supported by academic or popular dictionaries of plants in the Hebrew Bible, which typically identify the plant as acorus calamus or cymbopogon citratus.[5]

[edit]See also

[edit]References

  1. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica. Volume 8. p. 323.
  2. a b Sula Benet, Early Diffusion and Folk Uses of Hemp. (Reprinted in Cannabis and Culture, Vera Rubin, Ed. pg.41 The Hague: Mouton, 1975.) Transcribed and available online by inactive Anchorage NORML chapter, at [1]
  3. ^ Sara Benetowa (Sula Benet), Tracing One Word Through Different Languages. (1936). (Reprinted in The Book of Grass, 1967.)
  4. ^ Hebrew Concordance
  5. ^ Lytton J. Musselman Figs , dates, laurel, and myrrh: plants of the Bible and the Quran p73

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Exodus 30:25
Complete Jewish Bible (CJB)
25 and make them into a holy anointing oil; blend it and perfume it as would an expert perfume-maker; it will be a holy anointing oil.

other translations:
New International Version (©1984)
Make these into a sacred anointing oil, a fragrant blend, the work of a perfumer. It will be the sacred anointing oil.
New Living Translation (©2007)
Like a skilled incense maker, blend these ingredients to make a holy anointing oil.

English Standard Version (©2001)
And you shall make of these a sacred anointing oil blended as by the perfumer; it shall be a holy anointing oil.

New American Standard Bible (©1995)
“You shall make of these a holy anointing oil, a perfume mixture, the work of a perfumer; it shall be a holy anointing oil.

King James Bible (Cambridge Ed.)
And thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be an holy anointing oil.

GOD’S WORD® Translation (©1995)
Have a perfumer make these into a holy oil, a fragrant mixture, used only for anointing. This will be the holy oil used for anointing.

King James 2000 Bible (©2003)
And you shall make it an oil of holy anointing, an ointment compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

American King James Version
And you shall make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the are of the apothecary: it shall be an holy anointing oil.

American Standard Version
And thou shalt make it a holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And thou shalt make the holy oil of unction, an ointment compounded after the art of the perfumer,

Darby Bible Translation
and make of it an oil of holy ointment, a perfume of perfumery after the work of the perfumer: it shall be the holy anointing oil.

English Revised Version
and thou shalt make it an holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be an holy anointing oil.

Webster’s Bible Translation
And thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

World English Bible
You shall make it a holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

Young’s Literal Translation
and thou hast made it a holy anointing oil, a compound mixture, work of a compounder; it is a holy anointing oil.
http://bible.cc/exodus/30-25.htm

Rick Simpson on Visual Inspection and Quality of Oils: Debunked

There is ABSOLUTELY no science behind this… the two types we see in this video are from two extraction methods…. the amber stuff is made from Naphtha. I’ve already made it plain why the petroleum distillate Naphtha is dangerous to use as a solvent in this blogpost. The deep green stuff is produced with alcohol. When you use alcohol as a solvent, you get chlorophyll in your oil. Chlorophyll is among the compounds known to treat and even prevent cancer. Rick is totally contradicting himself and many patients who have cured themselves with the dark green stuff. I’m not an old hippie, but I have sat at the feet of many old heads and respected their wisdom…. Any old head will remember the highly coveted “Jamaican Hash Oil” that always came dark green (perhaps with some red undertones) when it was spread out on a joint-paper. Any old head who remembers Jamaican Hash oil knows it has all the medicine necessary to have a very baked day.

The same substance long coveted by recreational users is now being used to treat seriously ill people for a wide range of illnesses. What makes more sense to your mind? To use a petroleum distillate known to be dangerous that the government monitors heavily, or to use an alcohol solvent that is sustainable, easily recyclable, widely available, and with a long history alongside humans as a solvent to extract medicines?

I realize that most people don’t know much about perfume making, but perfume making has a long history. To illustrate my point regarding why Naphtha is not a good solvent to make a cancer cure therapy, I’ll share with you a bit of the history of extracting botanicals and the science behind it.

I’ve been making my own perfume since I was a little girl….. we’d go gather fragrant wildflowers and make lovely little blends… Think about the history of collecting a bouquet of flowers to take to a girl you favor… Our ancestors did things with purpose. A girl who would make a good wife would know how to take those flowers and create perfume with them… if you can extract perfume, you likely have some knowledge of plants and herbs. If you have knowledge of plants and herbs, you are likely a fair cook and a source of healing for any illnesses in the children, thus the way a maiden handled her bouquet could let the gentleman in question know how skilled a wife she may make.

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So just what are essential oils? what is their history? why do we make them? what are they good for?

An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils or aetherolea, or simply as the “oil of” the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove. An oil is “essential” in the sense that it carries a distinctive scent, or essence, of the plant. Essential oils do not form a distinctive category for any medical, pharmacological, or culinary purpose.

Essential oils are generally extracted by distillation. Steam distillation is often used. Other processes include expression or solvent extraction. They are used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and other products, for flavoring food and drink, and for adding scents to incense and household cleaning products.
Various essential oils have been used medicinally at different periods in history. Medical applications proposed by those who sell medicinal oils range from skin treatments to remedies for cancer, and often are based solely on historical accounts of use of essential oils for these purposes. Claims for the efficacy of medical treatments and treatment of cancers in particular, are now subject to regulation in most countries.
As the use of essential oils has declined in evidence-based medicine, one must consult older textbooks for much information on their use.[1][2] Modern works are less inclined to generalize; rather than refer to “essential oils” as a class at all, they prefer to discuss specific compounds, such as methyl salicylate, rather than “oil of wintergreen”.[3][4]
Interest in essential oils has revived in recent decades with the popularity of aromatherapy, a branch of alternative medicine that claims that essential oils and other aromatic compounds have curative effects. Oils are volatilized or diluted in a carrier oil and used in massage, diffused in the air by a nebulizer, heated over a candle flame, or burned as incense.
The techniques and methods first used to produce essential oils were first mentioned by Ibn al-Baitar (1188–1248), an Andalusian physician, pharmacist and chemist.[5]

ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essential_oil

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The History of Essential Oils

The origins of the holistic method of healing known today as aromatherapy dates back to 18,000 BC. Cave paintings in Lascaux, France depict the burning of aromatic plants, thought to be used to drive out evil spirits. Essential oils have been used in Ayurveda (traditional Indian medicine) for several hundred years. They were used in ancient Greece and Rome and there has been documentation as far back as 2800 BC, during the reign of Khufu in ancient Egypt, of oils, wines and i
ncenses being infused with plant essences. The concentrated plant essences are extracted from leaves, seeds, bark or other plant elements by either distillation or cold pressing. The plant essences are then combined with what’s called a carrier oil and thus they become ‘essential oils’. Carrier oils are generally vegetable oils similar to the oils that we cook with except that are cold pressed to maintain their healing properties.
Essential oils are used to promote healing in both the body and mind. They are found in many bath and body products as well as in candles and various other types of fragrance diffusers sold around the world. They may be inhaled, absorbed through the skin or ingested in food. When inhaled the oils are absorbed into the bloodstream, through the blood vessels in the lungs, and consequently circulated throughout the body. A few drops of essential oil may be added to a bath, massage oil, lotion, or candle to deliver their healing benefits. They are often used in fragrancers to disperse their scent more effectively over a period of time. Fragrancers diffuse the oil into the air through steam, mist, dry heat or evaporation (using a fan). In a pinch 3- 5 drops of an essential oil of your choosing in a cup of hot water will do.When shopping for essential oils the term “wildcrafted” pops up periodically. Wildcrafted plants are gathered from their natural, wild habitat and generally wildcrafting would entail taking only the small parts that are necessary so that the plant remains alive and flourishes. If the whole plant is needed then seeds are taken from the plant and replanted in the same area to maintain the balance.

The following is a list of several essential oils and the ailments that they are used to treat. There are hundreds of different essential oils and each one has a number of healing properties. If you are interested in learning more there is a wealth of information on the Internet or you may also find information at your local health food store. Many health food stores have resource guides available to their customers.

Jasmine – Anxiety, Catarrh, Confidence Booster, Cough, Headache, Laryngitis, Mental Tension, Sensitive or Dry Skin

Tea Tree – Age Spots, Athlete’s Foot, Boils, Burns, Catarrh, Colds, Corns, Cystitis, Dandruff, Fungal Infections, Immune System Booster, Itching, Sunburn, Urinary Tract Infections, Warts

Lavender – Acne, Anxiety, Bronchitis, Burns, Catarrh, Chilblains, Circulatory Problems, Colds, Dandruff, Eczema, Flu, Headaches, Insect Bites, Insomnia, Muscle Aches and Pains, PMS Symptoms, Psoriasis, Rheumatism, Sinusitis, Skin Problems, Sunburn, Tension, Throat Infection, Wounds and Sores

Rosemary – Burns, Cellulite, Colds, Digestive Problems, Fatigue, Flu, Gout, Liver and Gall Bladder Problems, Oily Skin, Poor Circulation, Rheumatism, Water Retention, Wounds

Eucalyptus – Air Disinfectant, Asthma, Bronchitis, Burns, Cuts, Decongestant, Flu, Headaches, Insect Repellant, Muscle Aches, Rheumatism, Sinusitis, Skin Ulcers, Urinary Infections, Wounds

Marjoram – Anxiety, Arthritis, Bronchitis, Bruises, Colic, Constipation, Digestive Problems, Flatulence, Insomnia, Muscle Aches and Pains, PMS Symptoms, Rheumatism, Sinusitis, Sprains

Bergamot – Abscesses, Acne, Boils, Chicken Pox, Colds, Cold Sores, Cystitis, Flatulence, Loss of Appetite, Mouth Infections, Sore Throat

Basil – Bronchitis, Colds, Constipation, Insect Bites, Mental Fatigue, Migraine, Nervous Tension, Rheumatism, Sinus Congestion.

Clary Sage – Asthma, Depression, Digestive Problems, Exhaustion, Muscle Cramps and Spasms, PMS Relief, Respiratory Problems

Ginger – Arthritis, Bronchitis, Catarrh, Colds, Colic, Constipation, Diarrhea, Exhaustion, Flatulence, Flu, Indigestion, Poor Circulation, Rheumatism, Sinusitis

Sandalwood – Anxiety, Bronchitis, Cystitis, Fatigue, Frigidity, Impotence, Immune System Booster, Nervous Tension, Skin Conditions (such as acne, dry skin, eczema), Sore Throat, Stress, Urinary Infections, Water Retention

Myrrh – Arthritis, Bronchitis, Colds, Cough, Digestive Problems, Mouth and Gum Problems, Stimulates Immune System

Rose – Aging Skin, Broken Veins, Depression, Dry Skin, Headache, Insomnia, PMS Symptoms, Sensitive Skin, Sore Throat, Stress

Ylang Ylang – Anxiety, High Blood Pressure, Intestinal Problems, Sexual Dysfunction, Stress

The following is a list of conditions that it has been recommended the corresponding oils not be used under. If you have questions consult a medical herbalist.

During Pregnancy Do Not Use – Basil, Cinnamon, Clary Sage, Cypress, Fennel, Jasmine, Juniper, Marjoram, Myrrh, Origanum, Pennyroyal, Peppermint, Rose, Rosemary, Sage, Savory and Thyme

While Breast Feeding Do Not Use – Mint, Parsley, Sage and Jasmine

If You Have High Blood Pressure Do Not Use – Cypress, Eucalyptus, Ginger, Rose, Rosemary, Sage and Thyme

If You Have Low Blood Pressure Do Not Use – Clary sage, Garlic, Lavender, Lemon, Marjoram and Ylang Ylang

If You Have Epilepsy Do Not Use – Fennel, Hyssop, Rosemary, Sage and Wormwood

Use care when using heavy machinery or driving if you are using Clary Sage and Vertivert

Use care when combining Clary Sage with alcohol.

Essential oils have amazing healing abilities and when used properly they can be quite effective. To assure the most effective treatment as well as avoid any potential problems one should always seek out the advice of a qualified practitioner when using essential oils as with any other method of healing, holistic or otherwise.

Sources:
http://www.holisticshop.co.uk/library/b_ess.html
http://www.sunflowerstudio.co.uk/url/AromatherapyHistory.php
http://www.spiritsofnativelight.org/aromatherapy.htm

ref: http://voices.yahoo.com/history-essential-oils-their-medical-847407.html

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More History:

Essential oils are the subtle, aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from the flowers, seeds, leaves, stems, bark and roots of herbs, bushes, shrubs and trees through distillation. In the craft of alchemy, the soul of a plant is its oil, while its spirit is the plant’s alcohol or tincture. According to ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics and Chinese manuscripts, priests and alchemists were using essential oils thousands of y

ears ago to heal the sick. They are the oldest form of medicine and cosmetic known to man and were considered more valuable than gold to the ancients.The ancient Egyptians believed that the sense of smell and ability to detect odors was the most important of our sensory abilities. The considered the sense of smell far more important than sight or even the ability to think. That was because they knew the importance of odors to increase our intrinsic “frequency” and transform us. The utchat pendant shown here, found on the mummy of Tutankhamen, depicts the alchemy of spiritual nourishment both in the afterlife and in the created world. This is the Eye of Ra, symbolizing the Sun and solar energies. It is flanked by Nekhebet the Vulture of Upper Egypt (female intuitive consciousness that becomes pregnant by the Wind) and the Cobra of Lower Egypt (masculine intellectual consciousness that creates existence from duality). Together, the Vulture and Cobra make up the diadem (Third Eye) crown of the pharaohs.The physical eye is the part of the body able to perceive light and is therefore the symbol for spiritual abilities and energy. Egyptian texts that describe the Eye of Ra, portray it in terms of “eating” or absorbing spiritual “food” through the various senses. The senses are ordered according to their importance and how much energy must be “eaten” for an individual to receive a particular sensation or utilize the energy. In this scheme, all sensory data input is considered “food” on the spiritual level. In fact, the amount of spiritual energy derived from this metaphysical feasting is precisely expressed, and the construction of the Eye of Ra follows very definite laws. The parts of the sacred eye are assigned fractional values of the total spiritual nutrition available to us, which is 1 = 64/64 heqat. (The following sensory input channels total 63/64. According to legend, the missing 1/64th is the magical and infinite yet hidden energy supplied by Thoth.) The basic measure of sensory eating is called the “ro” and is equal to one “mouthful.” 320 ro = 1 heqat or one “handful” of food from the sun. The energy intake is assigned as follows: 1/64 heqat = Energy of Touch (physical sensation symbolized by a stalk planted in the ground supporting the eye at the center); 1/32 heqat = Energy of Taste (symbolized by the curly grain or wheat sprout from comes from the planted stalk); 1/16 heqat = Energy of Hearing (symbolized by the left part of eye that points to ear, which absorbs vibration); 1/8 heqat = Energy of Thought (symbolized by the eyebrow that expresses thought and reacts to it); 1/4 heqat = Energy of Sight (symbolized by the pupil of eye that absorbs light images or crystallized thoughtforms). However, the most energy absorption available to the human is assigned to the nose. 1/2 heqat = Energy of Smell (symbolized by the right part of eye that points toward the nose). Smell, then, represents the subtlest sense of odor and intuition, which was the soul-centered “Intelligence of the Heart” to the Egyptians. Without this higher nourishment, our spirit starves, becomes weak, and eventually dies.Oils have been used throughout history to evoke altered states of consciousness and initiate individuals into certain spiritual traditions. To “anoit” (from the Latin inunctus – “to smear with oil) is to make a person sacred, to set them apart and dedicate them to serve a higher spiritual purpose. In fact, the Bible refers to the use of anoiting oils over 150 times, and the Hebrew form of “messiah” and the Greek form of Christ literally mean “anointed.”Our modern science is only now beginning to investigate the incredible healing energy found in essential oils. Clinical research shows, for instance, that frankincense oil contains very high immune stimulating properties. The effectiveness of essential oils cannot be fully understood without some discussion of frequency. Frequency is the measurable rate of electrical energy flow that is constant between any two points. Everything has a frequency. Dr. Robert O. Becker in his book The Body Electric establishes that the human body has an electrical frequency and that much about a person’s health can be determined by it’s frequency. In 1992, Bruce Tainio of Tainio Technology, an independent division of Eastern State University in Cheny, Washington, built the first frequency monitor in the world. Tainio has determined that the average frequency of the human body during the daytime is 62-68 Hz. (A healthy body frequency is in the range of 62-72 Hz.) When the frequency drops, the immune system is compromised. If the frequency drops to 58 Hz, cold and flu symptoms appear, at 55 Hz, diseases like Candida take hold, at 52 Hz, Epstein Bar and at 42 Hz, Cancer.According to Dr. Royal R. Rife, every disease has a frequency. He found that certain frequencies can prevent development of disease and that others would destroy disease. Substances with higher frequency will destroy diseases of a lower frequency. The study of frequencies raises important questions concerning the frequencies of substances we eat, breath and absorb. Many pollutants lower healthy frequency. Processed/canned foods have a frequency of zero. Fresh produce has up to 15 Hz, dry herbs from 12 to 22 Hz, and fresh herbs from 20 to 27 Hz. Essential oils start at 52 Hz and go as high as 320 Hz, which is the frequency of Turkish rose oil. Clinical research shows that essential oils have the highest frequency of any natural substance known to man, creating an environment in which disease, bacteria, virus, fungus, etc., cannot survive.The penetrating characteristic of essential oils greatly enhances their ability to be effective. Essential oils will penetrate into the body when applied to the skin. An essential oil placed on the foot will be distributed to every cell in the body in 21 minutes. They will even penetrate a finger or toe nail to treat fungus underneath. The oils may be sniffed from cupped hands or diffused to elicit higher vibrations or states of consciousness during meditation. They may also be applied topically on the chakra points, neck, face, wrists, ankles, back, behind the ears, on the reflexology points on the bottom of the feet, or added to bath water, or worn as a perfume or cologne to raise the level of your personal environment.ref: http://www.crucible.org/oils_history.htm

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And now that we have a framework of the history of extracting essential oils, lets talk extraction methods commonly used to create these precious essences.

Distillation of essential oils

We owe a great debt to the Arabian alchemist (and physician) Ibn Sina – also known as Avicenna, who lived 980 – 1037 AD, since he was the first one to perfect steam distillation – and his process was so good that it stayed unchanged for a couple of hundred years.

Distillation of essential oils

Distillation converts the volatile liquid (the essential oils) into a vapor and then condenses the vapor back into a liquid – it is the most popular, and cost effective method in use today in producing essential oils.

The downside of distillation is the fact that heat is used in this extraction method, which makes it totally unacceptable for use on very fragile material, or where the oils are extracted with great difficulty.

When this method of extraction is applied, great care has to be taken with the temperature and length of exposure of the heat to prevent damage to the oils.

For more information please click the appropriate hyperlink Distillation of essential oils avicenna steam distillation

Ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/distillation.htm

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Water distillation in the extraction of essential oils

In the manufacture of essential oils using the method of water distillation, the botanic material is completely immersed in water and the still is brought to the boil. This method protects the oils so extracted to a certain degree since the surrounding water acts as a barrier to prevent it from overheating.

water distillation extraction of essential oils

When the condensed material cools down, the water and essential oil is separated and the oil decanted to be used as essential oil.

The water that is so separated in this process is also used and is marketed as “floral waters” (also called hydrosol orsweet water) – such as rosewater, lavender water and orange water.

Water distillation can be done at reduced pressure (under vacuum) to reduce the temperature to less than 100 degrees, which is beneficial in protecting the botanical material, as well as the essential oils.

Neroli oil, which is sensitive to heat, can therefore be successfully extracted using this method.

If extended exposure to hot water is not indicated for a particular plant – such as lavender, it is best to find an extraction method better suited. Any botanical material that contains high amounts of esters do not take well to this extraction method, since the extended exposure to hot water will start to break down the esters to the resultant alcohols and carboxylic acids.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/water-distillation.htm

Steam distillation of essential oil manufacture.

When steam distillation is used in the manufacture and extraction of essential oils, the botanical material is placed in a still and steam is forced over the material.

steam distrillation of essential oil

The hot steam helps to release the aromatic molecules from the plant material since the steam forces open the pockets in which the oils are kept in the plant material. The molecules of these volatile oils then escape from the plant material and evaporate into the steam.

The temperature of the steam needs to be carefully controlled – just enough to force the plant material to let go of the essential oil, yet not too hot as to burn the plant material or the essential oil.

The steam which then contains the essential oil, is passed through a cooling system to condense the steam, which forms a liquid from which the essential oil and water is then separated.

The steam is produced at greater pressure than the atmosphere and therefore boils at above 100 degrees Celsius which facilitates the removal of the essential oil from the plant material at a faster rate and in so doing prevents damage to the oil.

Some oils, like Lavender is heat sensitive (thermolabile) and with this extraction method, the oil is not damaged and ingredients like linalyl acetate will not decompose to linalool and acetic acid.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/steam-distillation.htm

Hydro diffusion in essential oil manufacture

When essential oils are extracted using hydro diffusion it is a type of steam distillation, and only varies in the actual way in which the steam is introduced into the still. With hydro diffusion the steam is fed in from the top onto the botanical material instead of from the bottom as in normal steam distillation.

hydro,diffusion

The condensation of the oil containing steam mixture occurs below the area in which the botanical material is held in place by a grill. The main advantage of this method is that less steam is used, shorter processing time and a higher oil yield.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/hydro-diffusion.htm

Cohobation in essential oil extraction

When rose oil is extracted during water distillation, the one main constituent – phenyl ethyl alcohol – dissolves into the water of the distillation still and does not form part of the essential oil that is so extracted.

cohobation rose otto

The oil so extracted is therefore not whole, and is deficient in this rose-smelling ingredient – and in order to produce a “complete” oil, the phenyl ethyl alcohol needs to be distilled from the water in which it dissolved and added back to the “incomplete oil”.

When this phenyl ethyl alcohol is so distilled, it is added back to the original distillate, in the correct proportion, to form a complete and whole rose oil, and is then called Rose Otto.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/cohobation.htm

Rectification in extraction of essential oils

When an essential oil contains any impurities, it can be purified by re-distillation – either in steam or in a vacuum, and this purification by re-distillation is referred to as rectification.

Rectification in extraction of essential oils

An example of this is eucalyptus oil that is marketed as “double-distilled”. This is not the same as chemical or heat refining and is used to produce oil of standard quality.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/rectification.htm

Combination water and steam distillation

This process is basically a marriage between normal water distillation and that of steam distillation.

The botanical material is immersed in water in a still, which has a heat source, plus live steam is fed into the water and botanical material mixture.

combination distilling Water and steam distillation of essential oils

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/water-steam-distillation.htm

Fractional distillation

When people talk about fractional distillation, it refers to a normal distillation process, but instead of the essential oil being collected continuously, it is collected in batches (the fractions that are referred to) and material normally so extracted isYlang-Ylang.

fractional,distillation

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/fractional-distillation.htm

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Expression extraction in essential oil manufacture

When a “cold pressed” method is referred to in the manufacture of carrier oil and essential oils, it basically refers to the expression method, since no heat is involved in this method.

essential oil manufacture

Most nut and seed oils are also extracted using a “cold pressed” method but here oil is forced from the material under high mechanical pressure and generally produces a good quality oil, but some manufacturers do impair this good quality by excessively refining the oil after extraction by means of chemicals or high heat.

But when we return to look at the expression method of extraction in the manufacture of essential oils, we find that most citrus essential oils are extracted this way and that three different ways are used to accomplish it:

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/expression.htm

Sponge extraction process

Most citrus essences are extracted by means of expression, and in the past were done by hand where the fruit pulp was removed, with the rind and pith then soaked in warm water to make the rind more pliable, since the pith of the fruit absorbed the water.

sponge,extraction

After the fruit has absorbed the water and become more elastic, it was inverted which helped to rupture the oil cells and a sponge placed next to the rind. It was then squeezed to release the volatile oil, which was then collected directly into the sponge.

As soon as the sponge became saturated with oil, it was squeezed and the essential oil collected in a vessel and then decanted.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/sponge-expression.htm

Écuelle à piquer extraction process

This form of expression extraction is used mainly to obtain citrus essential oils, and is a little less labor intensive than that of the sponge method.

ecuelle a piquer essential oil extraction punturing oil cells in peel

This more modern way of essential oil extraction is referred to as the écuelle à piquer process (direct translation = basin, to prick/stick/prod) where the fruit is placed in a device and rotated with spikes on the side puncturing the oil cells in the skin of the fruit.

This cause the oil cells to rupture and the essential oil, and other material such as pigment, to run down to the center of the device, which contains a collection area.

The liquid is thereafter separated and the oil is removed from the water-based parts of the mixture and decanted.

http://www.essentialoils.co.za/ecuelle-a-piquer.htm

Machine abrasion to produce essential oil

This method of expression extraction is very much like the écuelle à piquer method, and is mostly used in the manufacture of citrus essential oils.

machine abrasion extraction

With machine abrasion a machine strips off the outer peel, which is then removed by running water and is then fed into a centrifugal separator.

The centrifugal separation is done extremely fast but it should be noted that due to the fact that the essential oil is combined with other cell content for some time, some alteration could occur due to enzymatic action.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/machine-abrasion.htm

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SOLVENT EXTRACTION

Solvent extraction and essential oil

When we talk about the broad term of solvent extraction, it does not only refer to chemical solvents like hexane, but also to other forms – such as solid oil and fat as well as carbon dioxide.

solvent extraction

Solvent extraction is particularly suitable for botanical material that has a very low yield of essential oil, or where it is made up of mostly resinous components and as such delivers a far finer fragrance than that of distillation.

During this type of extraction, non-volatile components of the botanical material – such as waxes and pigments are also extracted and in some cases this is then removed during another process.

Under solvent extraction we list the following methods:

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/solvent-extraction.htm

Maceration extraction method

With the maceration extraction method, the flowers are soaked in hot oil to have their cell membranes ruptured and the hot oil then absorbs the essence. The oil is then cleared of the botanical and decanted.

maceration oils Maceration extraction essential oil infused oil

This is very much the same technique used in solvent extractions, where solvents are used instead of the hot oil as used in maceration.

http://www.essentialoils.co.za/maceration.htm

Enfleurage extraction of essential oils

Enfleurage could be compared to certain aspects employed in maceration, but is done in a slightly different way.

enfleurage extraction essential oils chassis en verre pour l'enfleurage

Glass plates in a frame (called a chassis) are covered with highly purified and odorless vegetable or animal fat and the petals of the botanical matter that are being extracted are spread across it and pressed in. The flowers are normally freshly picked before so encased in their fatty bed.

Time left in the fat on the chassis Enfleurage extraction of essential oils

The petals remain in this greasy compound for a few days or a couple of weeks (depending on the botanic material used) to allow the essence to disperse into the compound, where the then depleted petals are removed and replaced with a fresh harvest of petals.

This process is repeated until the greasy mix is saturated with the essence, and needs to be repeated a couple of times until saturation is achieved.

Enfleurage extraction of essential oils

When the mix has reached saturation point the flowers are removed and the enfleurage pomade – the fat and fragrant oil – then washed with alcohol to separate the extract from the remaining fat, which is then used to make soap.

As soon as the alcohol evaporates from the mixture you are left with the essential oil. This is a very labor-intensive way of extraction, and needless to say a very costly way to obtain essential oil and is nowadays only sometimes used to extract essential oil from tuberoses and jasmine.

http://www.essentialoils.co.za/enfleurage.htm

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Solvent extraction in essential oil manufacture

Essential oils can be extracted by using solvents such as petroleum ether, methanol, ethanol or hexane and is often used on fragile material such as jasminehyacinthnarcissus and tuberose, which would not be able to handle the heat of steam distillation.

hydrocarbon solvent extraction essential oil

A solvent extracted essential oil is very concentrated and is very close to the natural fragrance of the material used.

Although solvent extraction is used extensively, some people do not believe that it should be used for aromatherapy oils since a residue of solvent could be present in the finished product.

Some reports site a solvent residue of 6 – 20% still present in the finished extraction, but this was normally the case when benzene was the standard solvent used.

With hexane (a hydrocarbon) as the solvent material the solvent residue goes down to about 10 ppm (parts per million) and this is a extremely low concentration of solvent in the resultant product.

As mentioned, benzene is no longer used in the extraction method, since it is regarded as carcinogenic (cancer forming).

After the plant material has been treated with the solvent, it produces a waxy aromatic compound referred to as a “concrete“.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/solvent.htm

Hypercritical Carbon Dioxide gas
CO2 extraction of essential oils

The use of hypercritical carbon dioxide extraction is a fairly new way to extract essential oils from botanical material and although a bit on the expensive side, does yield good quality oils.

CO2 extraction essential oils hypercritical carbon dioxide gas

Carbon dioxide becomes hypercritical at 33 degrees Celsius, which is a state in which it is not really gas or liquid, but has qualities of both, and is an excellent solvent to use in the extraction of essential oils since the low temperature required and the fact that the process is near to instantaneous.

The carbon dioxide is furthermore inert and therefore does not chemically interact with the essence that is being extracted. To remove the carbon dioxide solvent, you simply need to remove the pressure under which it is kept.

This process has to take place in a closed chamber for the hypercritical pressure required for carbon dioxide is 200 atmospheres – that is 200 times the pressure of normal atmosphere.

To achieve this type of pressure some heavy-duty stainless steel equipment is required, and this is where high capital investment is required for this extraction method.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/hypercritical-c02-carbon-dioxide.htm

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Why is the art of perfume making important? Safety, purity of medications as well as spiritual use.

Sula Benet (1903 – 1982), also known as Sara Benetowa, was a Polish anthropologist of the 20th century who studied Polish and Judaic customs and traditions.

Contents

[hide]

[edit]Biography

Born in Poland, Benet was fascinated with peasant culture of Poland since her early youth. This interest eventually led her to enroll as a student of literature and philosophy in the Faculty of Humanities in the University of Warsaw but graduated with a degree in anthropology. Upon receiving her degree in 1935, she attended graduate school at Columbia University, where she received her doctorate in 1944.

[edit]Works

  • Festive recipes and festival menus 1957
  • Song, Dance, and Customs of Peasant Poland[when?]
  • Riddles of many lands Carl Withers, Sula Benet – 1956
  • Early Diffusion and Folk Uses of Hemp. 1967
  • Abkhasians: the long-living people of the Caucasus 1974
  • How to live to be 100: the life-style of the people of the Caucasus 1976

[edit]Early Diffusion and Folk Uses of Hemp. 1967

Benet’s writings have gained modern notability[citation needed] for her interpretations of the herb appearing in Hebrew text as kaneh-bosim (Hebrew קְנֵה-בֹשֶׂם) five times in the Hebrew Bible and how it relates to the religious use of cannabisKaneh-bosm is mentioned twice as part of the holy anointing oil used in the temple, and has been interpreted traditionally as calamus (an herb that is known in North American shamanism and in vedic atharva and has been discovered in modern times to contain a molecule known as Asarone that is a precursor of trimethoxyamphetamine, a psychedelic). Through comparative etymology, analysis of ancient texts (including pre-Hebrew Semitic language), and pharmacological consistencies she contends that the word kaneh-bosm actually refers to cannabis and was used in ancient Jewish religious rites, as a medicine and ritual sacrament. Benet’s work claims that cannabis use has a long culturally important history, and that the criminalization and demonization of cannabis is a recent invention (an occurrence of the previous century compared to Torah: dating back at least 3,000 years). While Benet’s conclusion regarding the psychoactive use of cannabis are not generally recognized among Jewishscholars, there is general agreement that hemp (“Kaneh”) is used in talmudic sources to refer to hemp fibers, as hemp was a vital commodity before linen replaced it.[1] Benet claims that traditional identifications of kaneh bosom do not account for hemp shirts being produced from industrial hemp, which Benet claims is “Kaneh” in Hebrew.[2] Benet claims that this kaneh differs from the “fragrant” or “sweet” hemp called especially kaneh bosm, because the latter produces much more of aromatic and psychotropic substances like CBD and THC.[2] [3]

Exodus records Moses receiving the instructions for making and distributing the holy anointing oil, as follows:

Then the LORD said to Moses, “Take the following fine spices: 500 shekels of liquid myrrh, half as much of fragrant cinnamon, 250 shekels of kaneh bosm, 500 shekels of cassia – all according to the sanctuary shekel–and a hind of olive oil. Make these into a sacred anointing oil” (Exodus 30: 22-33)

The Hebrew term kaneh (קָנֶה) is the standard Hebrew word for “cane” or “reed,” occurring 62 times in the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible [4] It usually occurs without the adjective “sweet,” and is translated “reed,” though twice as calamus (Song of Songs 4:14 and Ezekiel 27:19 KJV). It occurs with the adjective “sweet” in three places (Exodus 30:22-33, Isaiah 43:24, Jeremiah 6:20), where kaneh bosm is typically translated as “calamus,” “sweet cane” or “fragrant cane” in English versions.

Sula Benet’s theory is not supported by academic or popular dictionaries of plants in the Hebrew Bible, which typically identify the plant as acorus calamus or cymbopogon citratus.[5]

[edit]See also

[edit]References

  1. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica. Volume 8. p. 323.
  2. a b Sula Benet, Early Diffusion and Folk Uses of Hemp. (Reprinted in Cannabis and Culture, Vera Rubin, Ed. pg.41 The Hague: Mouton, 1975.) Transcribed and available online by inactive Anchorage NORML chapter, at [1]
  3. ^ Sara Benetowa (Sula Benet), Tracing One Word Through Different Languages. (1936). (Reprinted in The Book of Grass, 1967.)
  4. ^ Hebrew Concordance
  5. ^ Lytton J. Musselman Figs , dates, laurel, and myrrh: plants of the Bible and the Quran p73

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Exodus 30:25
Complete Jewish Bible (CJB)
25 and make them into a holy anointing oil; blend it and perfume it as would an expert perfume-maker; it will be a holy anointing oil.

other translations:
New International Version (©1984)
Make these into a sacred anointing oil, a fragrant blend, the work of a perfumer. It will be the sacred anointing oil.
New Living Translation (©2007)
Like a skilled incense maker, blend these ingredients to make a holy anointing oil.

English Standard Version (©2001)
And you shall make of these a sacred anointing oil blended as by the perfumer; it shall be a holy anointing oil.

New American Standard Bible (©1995)
“You shall make of these a holy anointing oil, a perfume mixture, the work of a perfumer; it shall be a holy anointing oil.

King James Bible (Cambridge Ed.)
And thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be an holy anointing oil.

GOD’S WORD® Translation (©1995)
Have a perfumer make these into a holy oil, a fragrant mixture, used only for anointing. This will be the holy oil used for anointing.

King James 2000 Bible (©2003)
And you shall make it an oil of holy anointing, an ointment compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

American King James Version
And you shall make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the are of the apothecary: it shall be an holy anointing oil.

American Standard Version
And thou shalt make it a holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And thou shalt make the holy oil of unction, an ointment compounded after the art of the perfumer,

Darby Bible Translation
and make of it an oil of holy ointment, a perfume of perfumery after the work of the perfumer: it shall be the holy anointing oil.

English Revised Version
and thou shalt make it an holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be an holy anointing oil.

Webster’s Bible Translation
And thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

World English Bible
You shall make it a holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

Young’s Literal Translation
and thou hast made it a holy anointing oil, a compound mixture, work of a compounder; it is a holy anointing oil.
http://bible.cc/exodus/30-25.htm

REBLOG: United Nations Moves to Impose International Treaties On States Legalizing Marijuana Alex Jones Infowars: Theres a war on for your mind!

» United Nations Moves to Impose International Treaties On States Legalizing Marijuana Alex Jones Infowars: Theres a war on for your mind!.

By: Kurt Nimmo

Infowars.com
November 21, 2012

The United Nations has declared Colorado and Washington in violation of international treaties following ballot initiatives that have legalized the recreational use of marijuana.

The President of the International Narcotics Control Board (INCB),Raymond Yans, has voiced “grave concern about the outcome of recent referenda in the United States of America that would allow the non-medical use of cannabis by adults in the states of Colorado and Washington, and in some cities in the states of Michigan and Vermont,” according to an INCB press release. The INCB is a quasi-judicial “control organ” for the implementation of the United Nations drug conventions.

Mr. Yans said the referenda in Colorado and Washington state “are in violation of the international drug control treaties, and pose a great threat to public health and the well-being of society far beyond those states.” Yans cited the standard nanny-state reasons for dictating what consenting adult Americans put in their bodies, including mental disorders, and cited the welfare of children as a primary concern of the internationalist organization.

Legalization of cannabis within these states would send wrong and confusing signals to youth and society in general, giving the false impression that drug abuse might be considered normal and even, most disturbingly, safe. Such a development could result in the expansion of drug abuse, especially among young people, and we must remember that all young people have a right to be protected from drug abuse and drug dependency,” the globalist bureaucrat said.

Yans called for the U.S. federal government to “resolve the contradiction between the federal and state levels in the implementation of that country’s obligations under the drug control conventions” and demanded it “take the necessary measures to ensure full compliance with the international drug control treaties within the entire territory of the United States, in order to protect the health and well-being of its citizens.”

In other words, the United Nations insists the federal government perpetuate the destructive and expensive War on Drugs that has fostered a massive prison-industrial complex and ruined countless lives over the last few decades.

As a consequence of the War on Drugs, the prison population in the United States has quadrupled since 1980, primarily as a direct result of mandatory sentencing for drug crimes. Around half of all inmates in federal prisons are there for drug offenses and more than 45 percent of all drug possession arrests in the U.S. last year were for marijuana, according to the FBI’s annual crime report. The United Nations supports this insanity with its call for the United States to obey international drug treaties.

Marijuana legalization is a classic states’ rights and federalist issue. “States should be allowed to make a lot of these decisions,” Rand Paul said earlier this week when asked about marijuana legalization. “I want things to be decided more at a local basis, with more compassion. I think it would make us as Republicans different.”

“I think, for example, we should tell young people, ‘I’m not in favor of you smoking pot, but if you get caught smoking pot, I don’t want to put you in jail for 20 years,’” Paul said.

Fortunately, the tide is slowly turning and many states are finally realizing the War on Drugs is not only grossly unfair, but an immense waste of law enforcement resources and tax payer money.

The United Nations is attempting to insert itself in decisions made by the states and by doing so is acting to perpetuate the War on Drugs. Americans should not only ignore the United Nations and the INCB Secretariat, but the federal government as well when it comes to decisions made by citizens on the local level.

This article was posted: Wednesday, November 21, 2012 at 11:35 am

Tags: 

 

Music video: Dr34m by DJ Krankzinnig to Kiefair Portraits

The Art of Breezy Kiefair is about to rework this with new music… and more links… until then, enjoy the old version featuring the very beautiful Katarina Marie of Grateful Hemp and her boo in portrait form. song title Dr34ms

The art in this video was created between January 2011 and June 2011

I used some of my friends everyday images altered artistically to create this video.

Song title: Dr34M

by: DJ Krankzinnig

The vocals are in the public domain. The rest of the musical score was laid down by DJ Krankzinnig (the handsome fella in the portraits)

His Lady  makes the most beautiful hempwork necklaces. Here is a collage of pieces that I own created by the an artist from Ohio, Ms. Katarina Marie of Grateful Hemp Below is a collage of some of the pieces I have purchased from her.

you may purchase some of her Grateful Hemp Here

url: http://www.etsy.com/shop/GratefulHemp?ref=ss_profile

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Respectfully,
Breedheen O’Rilley Keefer
AKA Breezy Kiefair

links about breezy
blog

Reefer Gurl “like” page on FB
Gardening Tips for the Medically Damned “like” page on FB
the more in depth, needs editing, 31 page version to help you understand why i sit at my machine fighting the machine day in and day out.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

~ Do all that you can to cultivate peace within yourself, that it might
shine out from you, and plant the seed of peace in other spirits, for them
to cultivate.~{Remember… it is when we choose act on the issues that are in front of
our faces, when we choose to get involved instead of looking the other way
as our fellow man struggles, when we choose to take those small simple
little actions, working on righting little wrongs in our everyday lives that
really make change happen, those seemingly small actions are what really
make the world a better place and are a catalyst for greater social change.}
~Both quotes by Breedheen “Bree” O’Rilley Keefer~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Mountain Medicals in Divide Colorado Strain Reviews

Review of Strains grown by Mountain Medicals In Divide, Colorado

Mountain Medicals website
http://www.mountainmedicals.com/
Mountain Medicals
Pikes Peak Region of Colorado

Phone: (719) 357-9893
Email: info@MountainMedicals.com
Hours of Operation

Mon 12 – 5
Tues – Thursday 10 am – 6 pm
Friday 10 am – 7pm
Saturday 12 pm – 5 pm
Sunday by Appointment Only

Location

Divide Business Center
11505 U.S. Hwy 24 West
Divide, Co 80814

Golden Goat Cannabis Strain

10 of 10 Medical Leaves


Golden Goat was created by accident in Topeka Kansas when a male Hawaiian-Romulan pollinated
Mr. Dank’s freak Island Sweet Skunk mother. The strain is often light green and pink in color,
which is indicative of its Hawaiian sativa side. The scent is described as being a combination of sweet, sour and spicy with a tropical fruit flavor. Effects are strong, and felt from head to toe with a high lasting 1-2 hours.
Flowering time is 9-11 weeks with a golden appearance closer to harvest.
ref: http://www.leafly.com/hybrid/golden-goat

The Little Black Book Of Marijuana

10 of 10 medical leaves awarded!

The Little Black Book Of Marijuana by Steve Elliot is a concise and accurate introduction to the wonderful world of medicinal cannabis and recreational marijuana. I highly recommend it!

by Steve Elliot is available from the publisher here

or get it from Amazon here

digital editions of the little black book of marijuana here

permalink for Amazon review of “the little black book of marijuana

Watch for More Reviews Video Including CHEM-91, and many other strains are top shelf there

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

 

Colorado Color to “Lenny” Song by Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble

Colorado Color to “Lenny” Song by Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble from the album Texas

A Drive through the Colorado Fall Color 2012 to the music of:

Lenny (instrumental)
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“Lenny”
Song by Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble from the album Texas Flood
Released June 13, 1983
Recorded November 24, 1982
Genre Electric blues
Blues rock
Length 4:59
Label Epic Records
Writer Stevie Ray Vaughan
Texas Flood track listing
“I’m Cryin'”
(9) “Lenny”
(10)
“Lenny” is the tenth and final track on the first Stevie Ray Vaughan album Texas Flood. The song is in 4/4 time and notated in the key of E major (but instruments are tuned down a half-step). It is played very slowly and freely, with Vaughan alternating between jazz-inflected chords and solo runs. The style is influenced by Jimi Hendrix ballads like “Little Wing” and “Angel”.[1] The song itself was written and named for his wife at the time, Lenora. Vaughan also named one of his guitars “Lenny”, which he used to play this song and also “Riviera Paradise”. The song was often played at live shows.
[edit]References

^ Kitts, Jeff, ed. (1997). Guitar World Presents Stevie Ray Vaughan: … from the Pages of Guitar World Magazine. Hal Leonard. p. 128. ISBN 0793580803.

ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lenny_(instrumental)

***** Disclaimer****** This is the site of a Medicinal Cannabis Activist! (updated 11/4/2012)

This is the site of vocal a Medical Marijuana Activist!

I understand some of my buds here, and family/friends of my buds may find some of my viewpoints controversial and/or objectionable. If you have recently added me as a friend and any of my behavior/posts are bothering you, please send me a private message so we can work it out just between you and I. Do not get me wrong, I encourage lively respectful debate on my site, however remarks on a persons behavior are best brought directly to the person who has committed the offense, not in a public forum. I remind everyone that you have the power to decide what does or doesn’t remain on your facebook page.

If you do not agree with the way I choose to use my freedom of speech, feel free to take me off your friends list. That is why it is called freedom of speech. I have the freedom to speak, you have the freedom to listen or walk away.

I am sorry if I come off needy, but the patients I am trying to help are out of time. When I started in the movement I suffered along side the people it is my goal to help, now my circumstances have allowed me to be in a position to give. I use my story as a way to advocate THEIR needs by telling my own story! Many people who I speak to want confidentiality and i offer them that, however if there is something in my own story that can be used to advocate for a voiceless individual I am going to share it.

I’d like to also mention that and as long as I make a reasonable attempt to quote the original source of the intellectual property (the person who actually created the relevant portion of the information, not just who posted it to facebook today), who cares where I first came across the link? You don’t like what I say, that’s fine. Go with my love and blessing. I will soldier on!

Feel free to share away on all my posts btw. If it is obviously something I wrote, and is my intellectual property, I ask you pay me the respect of quoting your source.

addendum 11/4/ 2012

Feel like asking me a question??? Ask away, but keep this in mind:While I am happy to educate and provide information, please keep in mind that my whole body is hurting the whole conversation…. either ask a clear question, or don’t ask it at all… I really don’t have time or energy for chit chat…. do you realize how many questions I answer a day? I am a very busy woman and don’t have the time or energy to chat with people for a long time just trying to figure out what information they need. If you catch me on a bad day, i apologize. I still freaking try to figure out what information you are after and try to provide it. If you don’t like what I have to say, that’s not my issue… you came to me for help remember? Just because I offer information and help to people does not mean I am under any obligation to do so. I don’t work for anyone, I don’t get paid to sit here and be an information index off the top of my head…. You are all on the internet, you all have access to search engines…. read, research… or at very least make it easy on the lady you are using as a cannabis research troll without even thinking about what toll it takes on my body and patience to do so… I have many other responsibilities for the cause in addition to being everyone’s favorite nerd slave….. and ones far more important than answering the questions of wanna-be activists who have not done their homework and need to grow some thick skin if they wanna swim in the cannabis activist shark tank…. hell, i ain’t a shark, but I sure as hell live in the shark tank… I would know.

If you cannot accept the above, then there are instructions for what to do in the pic below (at least as it applies to those who are connected to me on social networking sites. If the blog annoys you, unsubscribe and don’t bother to visit this url). Someone even formed a like page on facebook for people who hate me, so go talk to them about how much you hate me. They call their page “Breezy Kiefair is a Budmiserly Bitch” Here is their url:  https://www.facebook.com/budmiserlyb?fref=ts

Peace, Love and Blessings,

Respectfully,

Breedheen O’Rilley Keefer

AKA Breezy Kiefair

links about breezy

blog

kiefair.com

http://misshightimes.com/users/breezykiefairon

youtube

http://www.youtube.com/user/Mr8MrsKiefAir?feature=mhsnart

 pages on Facebook

The art of Breezy Kiefair

http://www.facebook.com/pages/The-Art-of-Breezy-Kiefair/154533251224064

reefer gurl

https://www.facebook.com/ReeferGurl?fref=ts

Gardening tips for the medically damned

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Gardening-Tips-for-the-Medically-Damned/472293732786829?fref=ts

fb profile

http://www.facebook.com/breezy.kiefair

twitter@breezykiefair

Want to help fund my work? https://www.wepay.com/donations/breezykiefair

bio of breezy:the short 4 page version:http://www.scribd.com/doc/64585079/My-Personal-Christmas-Present-to-the

the more in depth, needs editing, 31 page version to help you understand why i sit at my machine fighting the machine day in and day out.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/64585829/%E2%80%9CA-Long-Strange-Journey-of-1-Cannabis-Patient%E2%80%99s-Colorado-Cannabis-Activsm%E2%80%9D-or-%E2%80%9CAll-About-Breezy-Kiefair

~ Do all that you can to cultivate peace within yourself, that it might shine out from you, and plant the seed of peace in other spirits, for them to cultivate.~

{Remember… it is when we choose act on the issues that are in front of our faces, when we choose to get involved instead of looking the other way as our fellow man struggles, when we choose to take those small simple little actions, working on righting little wrongs in our everyday lives that really make change happen, those seemingly small actions are what really make the world a better place and are a catalyst for greater social change.} ~Both quotes by Breedheen “Bree” O’Rilley Keefer~

post of origin:

Tuesday, January 26, 2010 at 4:38pm

https://www.facebook.com/notes/breezy-kiefair/-disclaimer-this-is-the-site-of-a-medical-marijuana-activist/269310779138

on kiefair.com

***** Disclaimer****** This is the site of a Medical Marijuana Activist!

url: http://kiefair.com/2010/01/26/disclaimer-this-is-the-site-of-a-medical-marijuana-activist/

 

Hemp Seed and Hemp Seed Oil ~ a superfood, but not a cancer cure…

Hemp Seed and Hemp Seed Oil

~ a superfood, but not a cancer cure…

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Not to be confused with hash oil.

Is Hemp SEED oil the same as the cannabis cure oil?

NO! they are produced in entirely different methods from different parts and even different sexes of the plant!!! While I do recommend people cook with hemp seed oil whenever possible, It is not the cure for cancer. It is “health food” because  its 3:1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids, which matches the balance required by the human body.  If you need more protein, I suggest eating raw shelled hemp seeds. Any vegetarian having trouble getting enough protein in their diet should buy some. A serving of 3 tablespoons packs 10 grams of protein.

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__________

What is Hemp Seed Oil?

__________

Bottles of hempseed oil

Click here for reference 

Hemp oil or hempseed oil is obtained by pressing hemp seeds. Cold pressed, unrefined hemp oil is dark to clear light green in color, with a pleasant nutty flavour. The darker the color, the grassier the flavour.

Refined hempseed oil is clear and colorless, with little flavor and lacks natural vitamins and antioxidants. Refined hempseed oil is primarily used in body care products. Industrial hempseed oil is used in lubricants, paints, inks, fuel, and plastics. Hempseed oil has found some limited use in the production of soaps, shampoos and detergents. The oil is of high nutritional value because its 3:1 ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 essential fatty acids, which matches the balance required by the human body.[1] It has also received attention in recent years as a possible feedstock for the large-scale production of biodiesel.[2][3] There are a number of organisations that promote the production and use of hempseed oil.[4]

Hemp seed oil (right)

Hempseed oil is manufactured from varieties of Cannabis sativa that do not contain significant amounts of THC, the psychoactive element present in the cannabis plant. This manufacturing process typically includes cleaning the seed to 99.99% before pressing the oil. There is no THC within the hempseed, although trace amounts of THC may be found in hempseed oil when plant matter adheres to the seed surface during manufacturing. The modern production of hempseed oil, particularly in Canada, has successfully lowered THC values since 1998.[5]

Hash oil, not to be confused with hempseed oil, is used for both medicinal and recreational purposes and made from the mature female flowers and leaves of the drug cannabis, thus having a much higher THC content. Hash oil should not be confused with hemp, as the modern usage of the word ‘hemp’ is reserved for plants that meet the legal requirement of containing 0.3% THC or less.[citation needed]

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Nutrition

Main article: hemp

Hempseeds from which hempseed oilcan be extracted

About 30–35% of the weight of hempseed is an edible oil that contains about 80% as essential fatty acids (EFAs); i.e., linoleic acid,omega-6 (LA, 55%), alpha-linolenic acidomega-3 (ALA, 22%), in addition to gamma-linolenic acidomega-6 (GLA, 1–4%) andstearidonic acidomega-3 (SDA, 0–2%).

The proportions of linoleic acid and alpha-linolenic acid in one tablespoon per day (15 ml) of hempseed oil easily provides human daily requirements for EFAs. Unlike flaxseed oil, hempseed oil can be used continuously without developing a deficiency or other imbalance of EFAs. This has been demonstrated in a clinical study, where the daily ingestion of flaxseed oil decreased the endogenous production of GLA.[6]

In common with other oils, hempseed oil provides 9 kcal/g. Compared with other culinary oils it is low in saturated fatty acids.[7]

Highly unsaturated oils, and especially poor quality oils, can spontaneously oxidize and turn rancid within a short period of time when they are not stored properly; i.e., in a cool/cold, dark place, preferably in a dark glass bottle. Hempseed oil can be frozen for longer periods of storage time. Preservatives (antioxidants) are not necessary for high-quality oils that are stored properly.

Hempseed oil has a relatively low smoke point and is not suitable for frying. Hempseed oil is primarily used as a food oil and dietary supplement, and has been shown to relieve the symptoms of eczema (atopic dermatitis).[8]

Benefits

Hemp is a high protein seed containing all nine of the essential amino acids (like flax). It also has high amounts of fatty acids and fiber as well as containing vitamin E and trace minerals. It has a balanced ratio of omega 3 to 6 fats at around a three to one ratio. This won’t help correct your omega balance if it’s off, but it gives you the right balance to start with.

Further the protein content of the hemp seed is supposed to be very digestible. Many people noted their personal experience of finding that hemp seed protein did not cause bloating or gas, like some of their whey, or other protein shakes did.

And, get this, unlike soy which has super high amounts of phytic acid (that anti-nutrient that prevents us from absorbing minerals), hemp seed doesn’t contain phytic acid. At the very least, this makes hemp seed a step up from soy.

The Body Ecology Diet site has an article discussing hemp here.

It contains a list of benefits including what I mentioned above plus including some others as well.

Hemp contains:

* All 20 amino acids, including the 9 essential amino acids (EAAs) our bodies cannot produce.
* A high protein percentage of the simple proteins that strengthen immunity and fend off toxins.
* Eating hemp seeds in any form could aid, if not heal, people suffering from immune deficiency diseases. This conclusion is supported by the fact that hemp seed has been used to treat nutritional deficiencies brought on by tuberculosis, a severe nutrition blocking disease that causes the body to waste away.3
* Nature’s highest botanical source of essential fatty acid, with more essential fatty acid than flax or any other nut or seed oil.
* A perfect 3:1 ratio of Omega-6 Linoleic Acid and Omega-3 Linolenic Acid – for cardiovascular health and general strengthening of the immune system.
* A superior vegetarian source of protein considered easily digestible.
* A rich source of phytonutrients, the disease-protective element of plants with benefits protecting your immunity, bloodstream, tissues, cells, skin, organs and mitochondria.
* The richest known source of polyunsaturated essential fatty acids.

This article claims that because hemp’s protein is in the globulin edistin form it is a superior source of protein. It ends that thought with this paragraph.

“The best way to insure the body has enough amino acid material to make the globulins is to eat foods high in globulin proteins. Since hemp seed protein is 65% globulin edistin, and also includes quantities of albumin, its protein is readily available in a form quite similar to that found in blood plasma. Eating hemp seeds gives the body all the essential amino acids required to maintain health, and provides the necessary kinds and amounts of amino acids the body needs to make human serum albumin and serum globulins like the immune enhancing gamma globulins. Eating hemp seeds could aid, if not heal, people suffering from immune deficiency diseases. This conclusion is supported by the fact that hemp seed was used to treat nutritional deficiencies brought on by tuberculosis, a severe nutrition blocking disease that causes the body to waste away. [Czechoslovakia Tubercular Nutritional Study, 1955] “

reference for above centered “benefits section):

http://www.thenourishinggourmet.com/2009/03/hemp-seed-nutritional-value-and-thoughts.html

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[edit]Wood finish

Hemp oil is a “drying oil”, as it can polymerize into a solid form. Due to its polymer-forming properties, hemp oil is used on its own or blended with other oils, resins, and solvents as an impregnator and varnish in wood finishing, as a pigment binder in oil paints, as a plasticizer and hardener in putty. It has uses similar to Linseed oil and characteristics similar totung oil.[9]

click here for reference information for the above hemp seed oil portion of the post

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Is there a difference between Hemp and Cannabis?

Yes and no… Hemp generally refers to either the male plant or the portions of the plant used for their fiber. Cannabis generally refers to the female plant and the portions of the plant used for it’s psychoactive and healing effects.

Merriam-Webster definitions of Hemp and Cannabis:

hemp

noun ˈhemp

1

a : a tall widely cultivated Asian herb
(Cannabis sativa of the family Cannabaceae, the hemp family)
that has a tough bast fiber used especially for cordage
and that is often separated into a tall loosely branched species (C. sativa)
and a low-growing densely branched species (C. indica)

b : the fiber of hemp

c : a psychoactive drug (as marijuana or hashish) from hemp

2

: a fiber (as jute) from a plant other than the true hemp;

also: a plant yielding such fiber

Origin of HEMP

Middle English, from Old English hænep;

akin to Old High German hanaf hemp,

Greek kannabis

First Known Use: before 12th century

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Definition of CANNABIS

1
: hemp 1a
2
: any of the preparations (as marijuana or hashish) or chemicals (as THC) that are derived from the hemp
and are psychoactive

Origin of CANNABIS

Latin, hemp, from Greek kannabis; akin to Old English hænephemp

First Known Use: 1783

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Author’s note ~ there is so much more to know on the origin of the word Cannabis!!!

If you do your homework on cannabis well,
you should have come across kaneh-bosim (Hebrew קְנֵה-בֹשֶׂם)

The anthropologist Sula Benet did a lot of work
on the etymology of this word and it’s association
with Old Testament biblical recipe for
Holy Anointing Oil given in Exodus 30:22-25.

The term sweet calamus was mistranslated
and put in place of Kaneh-Bosim
when King James of england commissioned a new translation (circa 1604-1611).

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Other nutritional concerns for Cancer Patients

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Foods to avoid to heal Cancer more effectively:

Red meat and refined sugars are a bad idea.  If you have a sweet tooth, try to stay away from the white sugar and any sugars that have been through a lengthy refining process. Natural sugars such as honey or molasses and naturally occurring sugars in fruit are a good option. As I said in the introduction to this article, If you need more protein, I suggest eating raw shelled hemp seeds. Any vegetarian having trouble getting enough protein in their diet should buy some. A serving of 3 tablespoons packs 10 grams of protein!

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Red Meat

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A March 2012 study from Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) researchers has found that red meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of total, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. The results also showed that substituting other healthy protein sources, such as fish, poultry, nuts, and legumes, was associated with a lower risk of mortality.

click here to learn more

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Refined Sugar

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n 1931, German biologist Otto Heinrich Warburg won a Nobel Prize for his research into the causes of cancer. In his studies, Warburg found that cancerous tumors fueled their growth through the metabolism of glucose — digested sugar. Although some scientists rejected Warburg’s theories for many decades, recent studies have drawn connections between different types of cancer and refined sugar intake.

Insulin Resistance and Cancer

The pancreas works with your digestive system to produce the hormone insulin, which aids in the metabolism of glucose. When you eat carbohydrates, the pancreas automatically releases insulin to help break the carbs down into glucose to fuel your cells. If you are insulin-resistant and eating a diet of primarily high-glycemic foods, your pancreas becomes overworked and cannot keep up with the demand for insulin, allowing glucose to build up in your bloodstream. Insulin resistance increases your risk of several diseases, including Type 2 diabetes, heart disease and some cancers. To prevent cancer, the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research recommended against consuming sugary beverages and snacks in a 2007 report.

Research into Specific Cancers

Many later studies have shown a direct connection between insulin resistance, high-glycemic diets and certain types of cancer. In a study of more than 2,500 women published in the “Annals of Oncology” in 2001, the findings supported a connection between insulin resistance and breast cancer development. Another study published in the “American Journal of Epidemiology” in 2006 followed 16,000 Norwegian men for 27 years and found insulin resistance to be a predictor of prostate cancer. An analysis of a study conducted in Italy from 1986 to 1992 published in the “Annals of Oncology” in 2008 drew a link between high-glycemic diets and thyroid cancer risk.

http://www.livestrong.com/article/465680-refined-sugar-cancer/#ixzz2B0y79ySl

click here to learn more

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*****note***** this post is an excerpt from another much longer and more detailed post regarding Phoenix Tears oil and frequently asked questions about the cannabis cure oil. please take the time to fully educate yourself by clicking here.

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endnote: a top-shelf bud asked me to create this excerpt from the FAQ’s about Phoenix Tears Therapy for the Beginner post. She makes the most beautiful hempwork necklaces. Here is a collage of pieces that I own created by the an artist from Ohio, Ms. Katarina Marie of Grateful Hemp

you may purchase some of her Grateful Hemp Here

url: http://www.etsy.com/shop/GratefulHemp?ref=ss_profile

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Respectfully,
Breedheen O’Rilley Keefer
AKA Breezy Kiefair

links about breezy
blog

Reefer Gurl “like” page on FB
Gardening Tips for the Medically Damned “like” page on FB
the more in depth, needs editing, 31 page version to help you understand why i sit at my machine fighting the machine day in and day out.

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~ Do all that you can to cultivate peace within yourself, that it might
shine out from you, and plant the seed of peace in other spirits, for them
to cultivate.~{Remember… it is when we choose act on the issues that are in front of
our faces, when we choose to get involved instead of looking the other way
as our fellow man struggles, when we choose to take those small simple
little actions, working on righting little wrongs in our everyday lives that
really make change happen, those seemingly small actions are what really
make the world a better place and are a catalyst for greater social change.}
~Both quotes by Breedheen “Bree” O’Rilley Keefer~

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Is amendment 64 a good idea or a corporate nightmare you decide.

Breezy Kiefair:

Is amendment 64 a good idea or a corporate nightmare you decide.

Re-blogged to facilitate discussion. The original post has commentary closed. Hopefully you can comment now. Please keep the debate respectful. you can read the initial post here: http://kiefair.com/2012/04/15/colorado-canna-relief-or-cannabis-like-alcohol-you-decide/

you can read more about why I will not be voting yes on 64 at these posts:

Corporate Greed is not Legal Weed! Colorado, Vote NO on 64!

url http://kiefair.com/2012/10/29/corporate-greed-is-not-legal-weed-colorado-vote-no-on-64/

A conversation with Betty Aldworth of Campaign to Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol (Amendment 64)

url: http://kiefair.com/2012/06/13/a-conversation-with-betty-aldworth-of-campaign-to-regulate-marijuana-like-alcohol-amendment-64/

this is the ONLY language up for a vote in colorado regarding legal pot:

This is the language that is already on the ballot for November.

Campaign To Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol

http://www.regulatemarijuana.org/

text of petition retrieved from: http://www.regulatemarijuana.org/s/regulate-marijuana-alcohol-act-2012

The Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol Act of 2012

Be it Enacted by the People of the State of Colorado

Article XVIII of the constitution of the state of Colorado is amended BY THE ADDITION OF A NEW SECTION to read:

Section 16. Personal use and regulation of marijuana

(1) Purpose and findings.

               (a) IN THE INTEREST OF THE EFFICIENT USE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT RESOURCES, ENHANCING REVENUE FOR PUBLIC PURPOSES, AND INDIVIDUAL FREEDOM, THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF COLORADO FIND AND DECLARE THAT THE USE OF MARIJUANA SHOULD BE LEGAL FOR PERSONS TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER AND TAXED IN A MANNER SIMILAR TO ALCOHOL.

              (b) IN THE INTEREST OF THE HEALTH AND PUBLIC SAFETY OF OUR CITIZENRY, THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF COLORADO FURTHER FIND AND DECLARE THAT MARIJUANA SHOULD BE REGULATED IN A MANNER SIMILAR TO ALCOHOL SO THAT:

              (I) INDIVIDUALS WILL HAVE TO SHOW PROOF OF AGE BEFORE PURCHASING MARIJUANA;

              (II) SELLING, DISTRIBUTING, OR TRANSFERRING MARIJUANA TO MINORS AND OTHER INDIVIDUALS UNDER THE AGE OF TWENTY-ONE SHALL REMAIN ILLEGAL;

              (III) DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF MARIJUANA SHALL REMAIN ILLEGAL;

              (IV) LEGITIMATE, TAXPAYING BUSINESS PEOPLE, AND NOT CRIMINAL ACTORS, WILL CONDUCT SALES OF MARIJUANA; AND

              (V) MARIJUANA SOLD IN THIS STATE WILL BE LABELED AND SUBJECT TO ADDITIONAL REGULATIONS TO ENSURE THAT CONSUMERS ARE INFORMED AND PROTECTED.

              (c) IN THE INTEREST OF ENACTING RATIONAL POLICIES FOR THE TREATMENT OF ALL VARIATIONS OF THE CANNABIS PLANT, THE PEOPLE OF COLORADO FURTHER FIND AND DECLARE THAT INDUSTRIAL HEMP SHOULD BE REGULATED SEPARATELY FROM STRAINS OF CANNABIS WITH HIGHER DELTA-9 TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL (THC) CONCENTRATIONS.

              (d) THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF COLORADO FURTHER FIND AND DECLARE THAT IT IS NECESSARY TO ENSURE CONSISTENCY AND FAIRNESS IN THE APPLICATION OF THIS SECTION THROUGHOUT THE STATE AND THAT, THEREFORE, THE MATTERS ADDRESSED BY THIS SECTION ARE, EXCEPT AS SPECIFIED HEREIN, MATTERS OF STATEWIDE CONCERN.

(2) Definitions.  AS USED IN THIS SECTION, UNLESS THE CONTEXT OTHERWISE REQUIRES,

             (a) “COLORADO MEDICAL MARIJUANA CODE” MEANS ARTICLE 43.3 OF TITLE 12, COLORADO REVISED STATUTES.

             (b) “CONSUMER” MEANS A PERSON TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER WHO PURCHASES MARIJUANA OR MARIJUANA PRODUCTS FOR PERSONAL USE BY PERSONS TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER, BUT NOT FOR RESALE TO OTHERS.

             (c) “DEPARTMENT” MEANS THE DEPARTMENT OF REVENUE OR ITS SUCCESSOR AGENCY.

             (d) “INDUSTRIAL HEMP” MEANS THE PLANT OF THE GENUS CANNABIS AND ANY PART OF SUCH PLANT, WHETHER GROWING OR NOT, WITH A DELTA-9 TETRAHYDROCANNABINOL CONCENTRATION THAT DOES NOT EXCEED THREE-TENTHS PERCENT ON A DRY WEIGHT BASIS.

             (e) “LOCALITY” MEANS A COUNTY, MUNICIPALITY, OR CITY AND COUNTY.

             (f) “MARIJUANA” OR “MARIHUANA” MEANS ALL PARTS OF THE PLANT OF THE GENUS CANNABIS WHETHER GROWING OR NOT, THE SEEDS THEREOF, THE RESIN EXTRACTED FROM ANY PART OF THE PLANT, AND EVERY COMPOUND, MANUFACTURE, SALT, DERIVATIVE, MIXTURE, OR PREPARATION OF THE PLANT, ITS SEEDS, OR ITS RESIN, INCLUDING MARIHUANA CONCENTRATE. “MARIJUANA” OR “MARIHUANA” DOES NOT INCLUDE INDUSTRIAL HEMP, NOR DOES IT INCLUDE FIBER PRODUCED FROM THE STALKS, OIL, OR CAKE MADE FROM THE SEEDS OF THE PLANT, STERILIZED SEED OF THE PLANT WHICH IS INCAPABLE OF GERMINATION, OR THE WEIGHT OF ANY OTHER INGREDIENT COMBINED WITH MARIJUANA TO PREPARE TOPICAL OR ORAL ADMINISTRATIONS, FOOD, DRINK, OR OTHER PRODUCT.

             (g) “MARIJUANA ACCESSORIES” MEANS ANY EQUIPMENT, PRODUCTS, OR MATERIALS OF ANY KIND WHICH ARE USED, INTENDED FOR USE, OR DESIGNED FOR USE IN PLANTING, PROPAGATING, CULTIVATING, GROWING, HARVESTING, COMPOSTING, MANUFACTURING, COMPOUNDING, CONVERTING, PRODUCING, PROCESSING, PREPARING, TESTING, ANALYZING, PACKAGING, REPACKAGING, STORING, VAPORIZING, OR CONTAINING MARIJUANA, OR FOR INGESTING, INHALING, OR OTHERWISE INTRODUCING MARIJUANA INTO THE HUMAN BODY.

             (h) “MARIJUANA CULTIVATION FACILITY” MEANS AN ENTITY LICENSED TO CULTIVATE, PREPARE, AND PACKAGE MARIJUANA AND SELL MARIJUANA TO RETAIL MARIJUANA STORES, TO MARIJUANA PRODUCT MANUFACTURING FACILITIES, AND TO OTHER MARIJUANA CULTIVATION FACILITIES, BUT NOT TO CONSUMERS.

             (i) “MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENT” MEANS A MARIJUANA CULTIVATION FACILITY, A MARIJUANA TESTING FACILITY, A MARIJUANA PRODUCT MANUFACTURING FACILITY, OR A RETAIL MARIJUANA STORE.

             (j) “MARIJUANA PRODUCT MANUFACTURING FACILITY” MEANS AN ENTITY LICENSED TO PURCHASE MARIJUANA; MANUFACTURE, PREPARE, AND PACKAGE MARIJUANA PRODUCTS; AND SELL MARIJUANA AND MARIJUANA PRODUCTS TO OTHER MARIJUANA PRODUCT MANUFACTURING FACILITIES AND TO RETAIL MARIJUANA STORES, BUT NOT TO CONSUMERS.

             (k) “MARIJUANA PRODUCTS” MEANS CONCENTRATED MARIJUANA PRODUCTS AND MARIJUANA PRODUCTS THAT ARE COMPRISED OF MARIJUANA AND OTHER INGREDIENTS AND ARE INTENDED FOR USE OR CONSUMPTION, SUCH AS, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, EDIBLE PRODUCTS, OINTMENTS, AND TINCTURES.

             (l) “MARIJUANA TESTING FACILITY” MEANS AN ENTITY LICENSED TO ANALYZE AND CERTIFY THE SAFETY AND POTENCY OF MARIJUANA.

             (m) “MEDICAL MARIJUANA CENTER” MEANS AN ENTITY LICENSED BY A STATE AGENCY TO SELL MARIJUANA AND MARIJUANA PRODUCTS PURSUANT TO SECTION 14 OF THIS ARTICLE AND THE COLORADO MEDICAL MARIJUANA CODE.

             (n) “RETAIL MARIJUANA STORE” MEANS AN ENTITY LICENSED TO PURCHASE MARIJUANA FROM MARIJUANA CULTIVATION FACILITIES AND MARIJUANA AND MARIJUANA PRODUCTS FROM MARIJUANA PRODUCT MANUFACTURING FACILITIES AND TO SELL MARIJUANA AND MARIJUANA PRODUCTS TO CONSUMERS.

             (o) “UNREASONABLY IMPRACTICABLE” MEANS THAT THE MEASURES NECESSARY TO COMPLY WITH THE REGULATIONS REQUIRE SUCH A HIGH INVESTMENT OF RISK, MONEY, TIME, OR ANY OTHER RESOURCE OR ASSET THAT THE OPERATION OF A MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENT IS NOT WORTHY OF BEING CARRIED OUT IN PRACTICE BY A REASONABLY PRUDENT BUSINESSPERSON.

(3) Personal use of marijuana.  NOTWITHSTANDING ANY OTHER PROVISION OF LAW, THE FOLLOWING ACTS ARE NOT UNLAWFUL AND SHALL NOT BE AN OFFENSE UNDER COLORADO LAW OR THE LAW OF ANY LOCALITY WITHIN COLORADO OR BE A BASIS FOR SEIZURE OR FORFEITURE OF ASSETS UNDER COLORADO LAW FOR PERSONS TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER:

             (a) POSSESSING, USING, DISPLAYING, PURCHASING, OR TRANSPORTING MARIJUANA ACCESSORIES OR ONE OUNCE OR LESS OF MARIJUANA.

             (b) POSSESSING, GROWING, PROCESSING, OR TRANSPORTING NO MORE THAN SIX MARIJUANA PLANTS, WITH THREE OR FEWER BEING MATURE, FLOWERING PLANTS, AND POSSESSION OF THE MARIJUANA PRODUCED BY THE PLANTS ON THE PREMISES WHERE THE PLANTS WERE GROWN, PROVIDED THAT THE GROWING TAKES PLACE IN AN ENCLOSED, LOCKED SPACE, IS NOT CONDUCTED OPENLY OR PUBLICLY, AND IS NOT MADE AVAILABLE FOR SALE.

             (c) TRANSFER OF ONE OUNCE OR LESS OF MARIJUANA WITHOUT REMUNERATION TO A PERSON WHO IS TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER.

             (d) CONSUMPTION OF MARIJUANA, PROVIDED THAT NOTHING IN THIS SECTION SHALL PERMIT CONSUMPTION THAT IS CONDUCTED OPENLY AND PUBLICLY OR IN A MANNER THAT ENDANGERS OTHERS.

             (e) ASSISTING ANOTHER PERSON WHO IS TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER IN ANY OF THE ACTS DESCRIBED IN PARAGRAPHS (a) THROUGH (d) OF THIS SUBSECTION.

(4) Lawful operation of marijuana-related facilities.  NOTWITHSTANDING ANY OTHER PROVISION OF LAW, THE FOLLOWING ACTS ARE NOT UNLAWFUL AND SHALL NOT BE AN OFFENSE UNDER COLORADO LAW OR BE A BASIS FOR SEIZURE OR FORFEITURE OF ASSETS UNDER COLORADO LAW FOR PERSONS TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER:

             (a) MANUFACTURE, POSSESSION, OR PURCHASE OF MARIJUANA ACCESSORIES OR THE SALE OF MARIJUANA ACCESSORIES TO A PERSON WHO IS TWENTY-ONE YEARS OF AGE OR OLDER.

             (b) POSSESSING, DISPLAYING, OR TRANSPORTING MARIJUANA OR MARIJUANA PRODUCTS; PURCHASE OF MARIJUANA FROM A MARIJUANA CULTIVATION FACILITY; PURCHASE OF MARIJUANA OR MARIJUANA PRODUCTS FROM A MARIJUANA PRODUCT MANUFACTURING FACILITY; OR SALE OF MARIJUANA OR MARIJUANA PRODUCTS TO CONSUMERS, IF THE PERSON CONDUCTING THE ACTIVITIES DESCRIBED IN THIS PARAGRAPH HAS OBTAINED A CURRENT, VALID LICENSE TO OPERATE A RETAIL MARIJUANA STORE OR IS ACTING IN HIS OR HER CAPACITY AS AN OWNER, EMPLOYEE OR AGENT OF A LICENSED RETAIL MARIJUANA STORE.

             (c) CULTIVATING, HARVESTING, PROCESSING, PACKAGING, TRANSPORTING, DISPLAYING, OR POSSESSING MARIJUANA; DELIVERY OR TRANSFER OF MARIJUANA TO A MARIJUANA TESTING FACILITY; SELLING MARIJUANA TO A MARIJUANA CULTIVATION FACILITY, A MARIJUANA PRODUCT MANUFACTURING FACILITY, OR A RETAIL MARIJUANA STORE; OR THE PURCHASE OF MARIJUANA FROM A MARIJUANA CULTIVATION FACILITY, IF THE PERSON CONDUCTING THE ACTIVITIES DESCRIBED IN THIS PARAGRAPH HAS OBTAINED A CURRENT, VALID LICENSE TO OPERATE A MARIJUANA CULTIVATION FACILITY OR IS ACTING IN HIS OR HER CAPACITY AS AN OWNER, EMPLOYEE, OR AGENT OF A LICENSED MARIJUANA CULTIVATION FACILITY.

             (d) PACKAGING, PROCESSING, TRANSPORTING, MANUFACTURING, DISPLAYING, OR POSSESSING MARIJUANA OR MARIJUANA PRODUCTS; DELIVERY OR TRANSFER OF MARIJUANA OR MARIJUANA PRODUCTS TO A MARIJUANA TESTING FACILITY; SELLING MARIJUANA OR MARIJUANA PRODUCTS TO A RETAIL MARIJUANA STORE OR A MARIJUANA PRODUCT MANUFACTURING FACILITY; THE PURCHASE OF MARIJUANA FROM A MARIJUANA CULTIVATION FACILITY; OR THE PURCHASE OF MARIJUANA OR MARIJUANA PRODUCTS FROM A MARIJUANA PRODUCT MANUFACTURING FACILITY, IF THE PERSON CONDUCTING THE ACTIVITIES DESCRIBED IN THIS PARAGRAPH HAS OBTAINED A CURRENT, VALID LICENSE TO OPERATE A MARIJUANA PRODUCT MANUFACTURING FACILITY OR IS ACTING IN HIS OR HER CAPACITY AS AN OWNER, EMPLOYEE, OR AGENT OF A LICENSED MARIJUANA PRODUCT MANUFACTURING FACILITY.

             (e) POSSESSING, CULTIVATING, PROCESSING, REPACKAGING, STORING, TRANSPORTING, DISPLAYING, TRANSFERRING OR DELIVERING MARIJUANA OR MARIJUANA PRODUCTS IF THE PERSON HAS OBTAINED A CURRENT, VALID LICENSE TO OPERATE A MARIJUANA TESTING FACILITY OR IS ACTING IN HIS OR HER CAPACITY AS AN OWNER, EMPLOYEE, OR AGENT OF A LICENSED MARIJUANA TESTING FACILITY.

             (f) LEASING OR OTHERWISE ALLOWING THE USE OF PROPERTY OWNED, OCCUPIED OR CONTROLLED BY ANY PERSON, CORPORATION OR OTHER ENTITY FOR ANY OF THE ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED LAWFULLY IN ACCORDANCE WITH PARAGRAPHS (a) THROUGH (e) OF THIS SUBSECTION.

(5) Regulation of marijuana.

             (a) NOT LATER THAN JULY 1, 2013, THE DEPARTMENT SHALL ADOPT REGULATIONS NECESSARY FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF THIS SECTION. SUCH REGULATIONS SHALL NOT PROHIBIT THE OPERATION OF MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENTS, EITHER EXPRESSLY OR THROUGH REGULATIONS THAT MAKE THEIR OPERATION UNREASONABLY IMPRACTICABLE. SUCH REGULATIONS SHALL INCLUDE:

             (I) PROCEDURES FOR THE ISSUANCE, RENEWAL, SUSPENSION, AND REVOCATION OF A LICENSE TO OPERATE A MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENT, WITH SUCH PROCEDURES SUBJECT TO ALL REQUIREMENTS OF ARTICLE 4 OF TITLE 24 OF THE COLORADO ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE ACT OR ANY SUCCESSOR PROVISION;

             (II) A SCHEDULE OF APPLICATION, LICENSING AND RENEWAL FEES, PROVIDED, APPLICATION FEES SHALL NOT EXCEED FIVE THOUSAND DOLLARS, WITH THIS UPPER LIMIT ADJUSTED ANNUALLY FOR INFLATION, UNLESS THE DEPARTMENT DETERMINES A GREATER FEE IS NECESSARY TO CARRY OUT ITS RESPONSIBILITIES UNDER THIS SECTION, AND PROVIDED FURTHER, AN ENTITY THAT IS LICENSED UNDER THE COLORADO MEDICAL MARIJUANA CODE TO CULTIVATE OR SELL MARIJUANA OR TO MANUFACTURE MARIJUANA PRODUCTS AT THE TIME THIS SECTION TAKES EFFECT AND THAT CHOOSES TO APPLY FOR A SEPARATE MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENT LICENSE SHALL NOT BE REQUIRED TO PAY AN APPLICATION FEE GREATER THAN FIVE HUNDRED DOLLARS TO APPLY FOR A LICENSE TO OPERATE A MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROVISIONS OF THIS SECTION;

             (III) QUALIFICATIONS FOR LICENSURE THAT ARE DIRECTLY AND DEMONSTRABLY RELATED TO THE OPERATION OF A MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENT;

             (IV) SECURITY REQUIREMENTS FOR MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENTS;

             (V) REQUIREMENTS TO PREVENT THE SALE OR DIVERSION OF MARIJUANA AND MARIJUANA PRODUCTS TO PERSONS UNDER THE AGE OF TWENTY-ONE;

             (VI) LABELING REQUIREMENTS FOR MARIJUANA AND MARIJUANA PRODUCTS SOLD OR DISTRIBUTED BY A MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENT;

             (VII) HEALTH AND SAFETY REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF MARIJUANA PRODUCTS AND THE CULTIVATION OF MARIJUANA;

             (VIII) RESTRICTIONS ON THE ADVERTISING AND DISPLAY OF MARIJUANA AND MARIJUANA PRODUCTS; AND

             (IX) CIVIL PENALTIES FOR THE FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH REGULATIONS MADE PURSUANT TO THIS SECTION.

            (b) IN ORDER TO ENSURE THE MOST SECURE, RELIABLE, AND ACCOUNTABLE SYSTEM FOR THE PRODUCTION AND DISTRIBUTION OF MARIJUANA AND MARIJUANA PRODUCTS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THIS SUBSECTION, IN ANY COMPETITIVE APPLICATION PROCESS THE DEPARTMENT SHALL HAVE AS A PRIMARY CONSIDERATION WHETHER AN APPLICANT:

             (I) HAS PRIOR EXPERIENCE PRODUCING OR DISTRIBUTING MARIJUANA OR MARIJUANA PRODUCTS PURSUANT TO SECTION 14 OF THIS ARTICLE AND THE COLORADO MEDICAL MARIJUANA CODE IN THE LOCALITY IN WHICH THE APPLICANT SEEKS TO OPERATE A MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENT; AND

             (II) HAS, DURING THE EXPERIENCE DESCRIBED IN SUBPARAGRAPH (I), COMPLIED CONSISTENTLY WITH SECTION 14 OF THIS ARTICLE, THE PROVISIONS OF THE COLORADO MEDICAL MARIJUANA CODE AND CONFORMING REGULATIONS.

             (c) IN ORDER TO ENSURE THAT INDIVIDUAL PRIVACY IS PROTECTED, NOTWITHSTANDING PARAGRAPH (a), THE DEPARTMENT SHALL NOT REQUIRE A CONSUMER TO PROVIDE A RETAIL MARIJUANA STORE WITH PERSONAL INFORMATION OTHER THAN GOVERNMENT-ISSUED IDENTIFICATION TO DETERMINE THE CONSUMER’S AGE, AND A RETAIL MARIJUANA STORE SHALL NOT BE REQUIRED TO ACQUIRE AND RECORD PERSONAL INFORMATION ABOUT CONSUMERS OTHER THAN INFORMATION TYPICALLY ACQUIRED IN A FINANCIAL TRANSACTION CONDUCTED AT A RETAIL LIQUOR STORE.

             (d) THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY SHALL ENACT AN EXCISE TAX TO BE LEVIED UPON MARIJUANA SOLD OR OTHERWISE TRANSFERRED BY A MARIJUANA CULTIVATION FACILITY TO A MARIJUANA PRODUCT MANUFACTURING FACILITY OR TO A RETAIL MARIJUANA STORE AT A RATE NOT TO EXCEED FIFTEEN PERCENT PRIOR TO JANUARY 1, 2017 AND AT A RATE TO BE DETERMINED BY THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY THEREAFTER, AND SHALL DIRECT THE DEPARTMENT TO ESTABLISH PROCEDURES FOR THE COLLECTION OF ALL TAXES LEVIED. PROVIDED, THE FIRST FORTY MILLION DOLLARS IN REVENUE RAISED ANNUALLY FROM ANY SUCH EXCISE TAX SHALL BE CREDITED TO THE PUBLIC SCHOOL CAPITAL CONSTRUCTION ASSISTANCE FUND CREATED BY ARTICLE 43.7 OF TITLE 22, C.R.S., OR ANY SUCCESSOR FUND DEDICATED TO A SIMILAR PURPOSE. PROVIDED FURTHER, NO SUCH EXCISE TAX SHALL BE LEVIED UPON MARIJUANA INTENDED FOR SALE AT MEDICAL MARIJUANA CENTERS PURSUANT TO SECTION 14 OF THIS ARTICLE AND THE COLORADO MEDICAL MARIJUANA CODE.

             (e) NOT LATER THAN OCTOBER 1, 2013, EACH LOCALITY SHALL ENACT AN ORDINANCE OR REGULATION SPECIFYING THE ENTITY WITHIN THE LOCALITY THAT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR PROCESSING APPLICATIONS SUBMITTED FOR A LICENSE TO OPERATE A MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENT WITHIN THE BOUNDARIES OF THE LOCALITY AND FOR THE ISSUANCE OF SUCH LICENSES SHOULD THE ISSUANCE BY THE LOCALITY BECOME NECESSARY BECAUSE OF A FAILURE BY THE DEPARTMENT TO ADOPT REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO PARAGRAPH (a) OR BECAUSE OF A FAILURE BY THE DEPARTMENT TO PROCESS AND ISSUE LICENSES AS REQUIRED BY PARAGRAPH (g).

             (f) A LOCALITY MAY ENACT ORDINANCES OR REGULATIONS, NOT IN CONFLICT WITH THIS SECTION OR WITH REGULATIONS OR LEGISLATION ENACTED PURSUANT TO THIS SECTION, GOVERNING THE TIME, PLACE, MANNER AND NUMBER OF MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENT OPERATIONS; ESTABLISHING PROCEDURES FOR THE ISSUANCE, SUSPENSION, AND REVOCATION OF A LICENSE ISSUED BY THE LOCALITY IN ACCORDANCE WITH PARAGRAPH (h) OR (i), SUCH PROCEDURES TO BE SUBJECT TO ALL REQUIREMENTS OF ARTICLE 4 OF TITLE 24 OF THE COLORADO ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE ACT OR ANY SUCCESSOR PROVISION; ESTABLISHING A SCHEDULE OF ANNUAL OPERATING, LICENSING, AND APPLICATION FEES FOR MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENTS, PROVIDED, THE APPLICATION FEE SHALL ONLY BE DUE IF AN APPLICATION IS SUBMITTED TO A LOCALITY IN ACCORDANCE WITH PARAGRAPH (i) AND A LICENSING FEE SHALL ONLY BE DUE IF A LICENSE IS ISSUED BY A LOCALITY IN ACCORDANCE WITH PARAGRAPH (h) OR (i); AND ESTABLISHING CIVIL PENALTIES FOR VIOLATION OF AN ORDINANCE OR REGULATION GOVERNING THE TIME, PLACE, AND MANNER OF A MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENT THAT MAY OPERATE IN SUCH LOCALITY. A LOCALITY MAY PROHIBIT THE OPERATION OF MARIJUANA CULTIVATION FACILITIES, MARIJUANA PRODUCT MANUFACTURING FACILITIES, MARIJUANA TESTING FACILITIES, OR RETAIL MARIJUANA STORES THROUGH THE ENACTMENT OF AN ORDINANCE OR THROUGH AN INITIATED OR REFERRED MEASURE; PROVIDED, ANY INITIATED OR REFERRED MEASURE TO PROHIBIT THE OPERATION OF MARIJUANA CULTIVATION FACILITIES, MARIJUANA PRODUCT MANUFACTURING FACILITIES, MARIJUANA TESTING FACILITIES, OR RETAIL MARIJUANA STORES MUST APPEAR ON A GENERAL ELECTION BALLOT DURING AN EVEN NUMBERED YEAR.

             (g) EACH APPLICATION FOR AN ANNUAL LICENSE TO OPERATE A MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENT SHALL BE SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT. THE DEPARTMENT SHALL:

             (I) BEGIN ACCEPTING AND PROCESSING APPLICATIONS ON OCTOBER 1, 2013;

             (II) IMMEDIATELY FORWARD A COPY OF EACH APPLICATION AND HALF OF THE LICENSE APPLICATION FEE TO THE LOCALITY IN WHICH THE APPLICANT DESIRES TO OPERATE THE MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENT;

             (III) ISSUE AN ANNUAL LICENSE TO THE APPLICANT BETWEEN FORTY-FIVE AND NINETY DAYS AFTER RECEIPT OF AN APPLICATION UNLESS THE DEPARTMENT FINDS THE APPLICANT IS NOT IN COMPLIANCE WITH REGULATIONS ENACTED PURSUANT TO PARAGRAPH (a) OR THE DEPARTMENT IS NOTIFIED BY THE RELEVANT LOCALITY THAT THE APPLICANT IS NOT IN COMPLIANCE WITH ORDINANCES AND REGULATIONS MADE PURSUANT TO PARAGRAPH (f) AND IN EFFECT AT THE TIME OF APPLICATION, PROVIDED, WHERE A LOCALITY HAS ENACTED A NUMERICAL LIMIT ON THE NUMBER OF MARIJUANA ESTABLISHMENTS AND A GREATER NUMBER OF APPLICANTS SEEK LICENSES, THE DEPARTMENT SHALL SOLICIT AND CONSIDER INPUT FROM THE LOCALITY AS TO THE LOCALITY’S PREFERENCE OR PREFERENCES FOR LICENSURE; AND

             (IV) UPON DENIAL OF AN APPLICATION, NOTIFY THE APPLICANT IN WRITING OF THE SPECIFIC REASON FOR ITS DENIAL.

             (h) IF THE DEPARTMENT DOES NOT ISSUE A LICENSE TO AN APPLICANT WITHIN NINETY DAYS OF RECEIPT OF THE APPLICATION FILED IN ACCORDANCE WITH PARAGRAPH (g) AND DOES NOT NOTIFY THE APPLICANT OF THE SPECIFIC REASON FOR ITS DENIAL, IN WRITING AND WITHIN SUCH TIME PERIOD, OR IF THE DEPARTMENT HAS ADOPTED REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO PARAGRAPH (a) AND HAS ACCEPTED APPLICATIONS PURSUANT TO PARAGRAPH (g) BUT HAS NOT ISSUED ANY LICENSES BY JANUARY 1, 2014, THE APPLICANT MAY RESUBMIT ITS APPLICATION DIRECTLY TO THE LOCALITY, PURSUANT TO PARAGRAPH (e), AND THE LOCALITY MAY ISSUE AN ANNUAL LICENSE TO THE APPLICANT. A LOCALITY ISSUING A LICENSE TO AN APPLICANT SHALL DO SO WITHIN NINETY DAYS OF RECEIPT OF THE RESUBMITTED APPLICATION UNLESS THE LOCALITY FINDS AND NOTIFIES THE APPLICANT THAT THE APPLICANT IS NOT IN COMPLIANCE WITH ORDINANCES AND REGULATIONS MADE PURSUANT TO PARAGRAPH (f) IN EFFECT AT THE TIME THE APPLICATION IS RESUBMITTED AND THE LOCALITY SHALL NOTIFY THE DEPARTMENT IF AN ANNUAL LICENSE HAS BEEN ISSUED TO THE APPLICANT. IF AN APPLICATION IS SUBMITTED TO A LOCALITY UNDER THIS PARAGRAPH, THE DEPARTMENT SHALL FORWARD TO THE LOCALITY THE APPLICATION FEE PAID BY THE APPLICANT TO THE DEPARTMENT UPON REQUEST BY THE LOCALITY. A LICENSE ISSUED BY A LOCALITY IN ACCORDANCE WITH THIS PARAGRAPH SHALL HAVE THE SAME FORCE AND EFFECT AS A LICENSE ISSUED BY THE DEPARTMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH PARAGRAPH (g) AND THE HOLDER OF SUCH LICENSE SHALL NOT BE SUBJECT TO REGULATION OR ENFORCEMENT BY THE DEPARTMENT DURING THE TERM OF THAT LICENSE. A SUBSEQUENT OR RENEWED LICENSE MAY BE ISSUED UNDER THIS PARAGRAPH ON AN ANNUAL BASIS ONLY UPON RESUBMISSION TO THE LOCALITY OF A NEW APPLICATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT PURSUANT TO PARAGRAPH (g). NOTHING IN THIS PARAGRAPH SHALL LIMIT SUCH RELIEF AS MAY BE AVAILABLE TO AN AGGRIEVED PARTY UNDER SECTION 24-4-104, C.R.S., OF THE COLORADO ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE ACT OR ANY SUCCESSOR PROVISION.

             (i) IF THE DEPARTMENT DOES NOT ADOPT REGULATIONS REQUIRED BY PARAGRAPH (a), AN APPLICANT MAY SUBMIT AN APPLICATION DIRECTLY TO A LOCALITY AFTER OCTOBER 1, 2013 AND THE LOCALITY MAY ISSUE AN ANNUAL LICENSE TO THE APPLICANT. A LOCALITY ISSUING A LICENSE TO AN APPLICANT SHALL DO SO WITHIN NINETY DAYS OF RECEIPT OF THE APPLICATION UNLESS IT FINDS AND NOTIFIES THE APPLICANT THAT THE APPLICANT IS NOT IN COMPLIANCE WITH ORDINANCES AND REGULATIONS MADE PURSUANT TO PARAGRAPH (f) IN EFFECT AT THE TIME OF APPLICATION AND SHALL NOTIFY THE DEPARTMENT IF AN ANNUAL LICENSE HAS BEEN ISSUED TO THE APPLICANT. A LICENSE ISSUED BY A LOCALITY IN ACCORDANCE WITH THIS PARAGRAPH SHALL HAVE THE SAME FORCE AND EFFECT AS A LICENSE ISSUED BY THE DEPARTMENT IN ACCORDANCE WITH PARAGRAPH (g) AND THE HOLDER OF SUCH LICENSE SHALL NOT BE SUBJECT TO REGULATION OR ENFORCEMENT BY THE DEPARTMENT DURING THE TERM OF THAT LICENSE. A SUBSEQUENT OR RENEWED LICENSE MAY BE ISSUED UNDER THIS PARAGRAPH ON AN ANNUAL BASIS IF THE DEPARTMENT HAS NOT ADOPTED REGULATIONS REQUIRED BY PARAGRAPH (a) AT LEAST NINETY DAYS PRIOR TO THE DATE UPON WHICH SUCH SUBSEQUENT OR RENEWED LICENSE WOULD BE EFFECTIVE OR IF THE DEPARTMENT HAS ADOPTED REGULATIONS PURSUANT TO PARAGRAPH (a) BUT HAS NOT, AT LEAST NINETY DAYS AFTER THE ADOPTION OF SUCH REGULATIONS, ISSUED LICENSES PURSUANT TO PARAGRAPH (g).

             (j) NOT LATER THAN JULY 1, 2014, THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY SHALL ENACT LEGISLATION GOVERNING THE CULTIVATION, PROCESSING AND SALE OF INDUSTRIAL HEMP.

(6) Employers, driving, minors and control of property.

             (a) NOTHING IN THIS SECTION IS INTENDED TO REQUIRE AN EMPLOYER TO PERMIT OR ACCOMMODATE THE USE, CONSUMPTION, POSSESSION, TRANSFER, DISPLAY, TRANSPORTATION, SALE OR GROWING OF MARIJUANA IN THE WORKPLACE OR TO AFFECT THE ABILITY OF EMPLOYERS TO HAVE POLICIES RESTRICTING THE USE OF MARIJUANA BY EMPLOYEES.

             (b) NOTHING IN THIS SECTION IS INTENDED TO ALLOW DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF MARIJUANA OR DRIVING WHILE IMPAIRED BY MARIJUANA OR TO SUPERSEDE STATUTORY LAWS RELATED TO DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF MARIJUANA OR DRIVING WHILE IMPAIRED BY MARIJUANA, NOR SHALL THIS SECTION PREVENT THE STATE FROM ENACTING AND IMPOSING PENALTIES FOR DRIVING UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF OR WHILE IMPAIRED BY MARIJUANA.

             (c) NOTHING IN THIS SECTION IS INTENDED TO PERMIT THE TRANSFER OF MARIJUANA, WITH OR WITHOUT REMUNERATION, TO A PERSON UNDER THE AGE OF TWENTY-ONE OR TO ALLOW A PERSON UNDER THE AGE OF TWENTY-ONE TO PURCHASE, POSSESS, USE, TRANSPORT, GROW, OR CONSUME MARIJUANA.

             (d) NOTHING IN THIS SECTION SHALL PROHIBIT A PERSON, EMPLOYER, SCHOOL, HOSPITAL, DETENTION FACILITY, CORPORATION OR ANY OTHER ENTITY WHO OCCUPIES, OWNS OR CONTROLS A PROPERTY FROM PROHIBITING OR OTHERWISE REGULATING THE POSSESSION, CONSUMPTION, USE, DISPLAY, TRANSFER, DISTRIBUTION, SALE, TRANSPORTATION, OR GROWING OF MARIJUANA ON OR IN THAT PROPERTY.

(7) Medical marijuana provisions unaffected.  NOTHING IN THIS SECTION SHALL BE CONSTRUED: (a) TO LIMIT ANY PRIVILEGES OR RIGHTS OF A MEDICAL MARIJUANA PATIENT, PRIMARY CAREGIVER, OR LICENSED ENTITY AS PROVIDED IN SECTION 14 OF THIS ARTICLE AND THE COLORADO MEDICAL MARIJUANA CODE; (b) TO PERMIT A MEDICAL MARIJUANA CENTER TO DISTRIBUTE MARIJUANA TO A PERSON WHO IS NOT A MEDICAL MARIJUANA PATIENT; (c) TO PERMIT A MEDICAL MARIJUANA CENTER TO PURCHASE MARIJUANA OR MARIJUANA PRODUCTS IN A MANNER OR FROM A SOURCE NOT AUTHORIZED UNDER THE COLORADO MEDICAL MARIJUANA CODE; (d) TO PERMIT ANY MEDICAL MARIJUANA CENTER LICENSED PURSUANT TO SECTION 14 OF THIS ARTICLE AND THE COLORADO MEDICAL MARIJUANA CODE TO OPERATE ON THE SAME PREMISES AS A RETAIL MARIJUANA STORE.; OR (e) TO DISCHARGE THE DEPARTMENT, THE COLORADO BOARD OF HEALTH, OR THE COLORADO DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENT FROM THEIR STATUTORY AND CONSTITUTIONAL DUTIES TO REGULATE MEDICAL MARIJUANA PURSUANT TO SECTION 14 OF THIS ARTICLE AND THE COLORADO MEDICAL MARIJUANA CODE.

(8) Self-executing, severability, conflicting provisions.  ALL PROVISIONS OF THIS SECTION ARE SELF-EXECUTING EXCEPT AS SPECIFIED HEREIN, ARE SEVERABLE, AND, EXCEPT WHERE OTHERWISE INDICATED IN THE TEXT, SHALL SUPERSEDE CONFLICTING STATE STATUTORY, LOCAL CHARTER, ORDINANCE, OR RESOLUTION, AND OTHER STATE AND LOCAL PROVISIONS.

(9) Effective date.  UNLESS OTHERWISE PROVIDED BY THIS SECTION, ALL PROVISIONS OF THIS SECTION SHALL BECOME EFFECTIVE UPON OFFICIAL DECLARATION OF THE VOTE HEREON BY PROCLAMATION OF THE GOVERNOR, PURSUANT TO SECTION 1(4) OF ARTICLE V.

 FB Like page
Campaign To Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol 
http://www.facebook.com/coloradoMJinitiative2012

 

Originally posted on Welcome To Kiefair.com:

In the interest of audience attention, I am beginning with the shorter, simpler petition.

RELIEF FOR POSSESSION OF CANNABIS ACT 2012
AKA Initiative 40 by Michelle LaMay


text:

Be it enacted by the people of Colorado 

Article XVIII of the constitution of the state of Colorado is amended BY THE ADDITION OF A NEW SECTION to read: 

Section 16. Relief for the possession of cannabis. 

(1) Purpose and findings. 

(a) THE PURPOSE OF THIS SECTION IS TO DIRECT THE JUDICIARY BRANCH OF ALL GOVERNING BODIES IN THE STATE OF COLORADO TO PROHIBIT AND RELIEVE THEIR COURTS FROM IMPOSING ANY FINE OR SENTENCE FOR THE POSSESSION, AND CULTIVATION AND SALE OF CANNABIS. 

(b) IT IS IN THE INTEREST OF THE PEOPLE OF THE STATE OF COLORADO THAT THE COURTS BE PROHIBITED AND RELIEVED FROM IMPOSING A FINE OR SENTENCE FOR THE POSSESSION OF CANNABIS BECAUSE THE PEOPLE FIND THAT THE PUNISHMENT…

View original 6,757 more words

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