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History of Essential oil Perfumery and Methods of Extracting Herbs

I realize that most people don’t know much about perfume making, but perfume making has a long history. To illustrate my point regarding why Naphtha is not a good solvent to make a cancer cure therapy, I’ll share with you a bit of the history of extracting botanicals and the science behind it.

I’ve been making my own perfume since I was a little girl….. we’d go gather fragrant wildflowers and make lovely little blends… Think about the history of collecting a bouquet of flowers to take to a girl you favor… Our ancestors did things with purpose. A girl who would make a good wife would know how to take those flowers and create perfume with them… if you can extract perfume, you likely have some knowledge of plants and herbs. If you have knowledge of plants and herbs, you are likely a fair cook and a source of healing for any illnesses in the children, thus the way a maiden handled her bouquet could let the gentleman in question know how skilled a wife she may make.

This post is an excerpt from article at the link.

So just what are essential oils? what is their history? why do we make them? what are they good for?

An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils or aetherolea, or simply as the “oil of” the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove. An oil is “essential” in the sense that it carries a distinctive scent, or essence, of the plant. Essential oils do not form a distinctive category for any medical, pharmacological, or culinary purpose.

Essential oils are generally extracted by distillation. Steam distillation is often used. Other processes include expression or solvent extraction. They are used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and other products, for flavoring food and drink, and for adding scents to incense and household cleaning products.
Various essential oils have been used medicinally at different periods in history. Medical applications proposed by those who sell medicinal oils range from skin treatments to remedies for cancer, and often are based solely on historical accounts of use of essential oils for these purposes. Claims for the efficacy of medical treatments and treatment of cancers in particular, are now subject to regulation in most countries.
As the use of essential oils has declined in evidence-based medicine, one must consult older textbooks for much information on their use.[1][2] Modern works are less inclined to generalize; rather than refer to “essential oils” as a class at all, they prefer to discuss specific compounds, such as methyl salicylate, rather than “oil of wintergreen”.[3][4]
Interest in essential oils has revived in recent decades with the popularity of aromatherapy, a branch of alternative medicine that claims that essential oils and other aromatic compounds have curative effects. Oils are volatilized or diluted in a carrier oil and used in massage, diffused in the air by a nebulizer, heated over a candle flame, or burned as incense.
The techniques and methods first used to produce essential oils were first mentioned by Ibn al-Baitar (1188–1248), an Andalusian physician, pharmacist and chemist.[5]

ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essential_oil

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The History of Essential Oils

The origins of the holistic method of healing known today as aromatherapy dates back to 18,000 BC. Cave paintings in Lascaux, France depict the burning of aromatic plants, thought to be used to drive out evil spirits. Essential oils have been used in Ayurveda (traditional Indian medicine) for several hundred years. They were used in ancient Greece and Rome and there has been documentation as far back as 2800 BC, during the reign of Khufu in ancient Egypt, of oils, wines and i
ncenses being infused with plant essences. The concentrated plant essences are extracted from leaves, seeds, bark or other plant elements by either distillation or cold pressing. The plant essences are then combined with what’s called a carrier oil and thus they become ‘essential oils’. Carrier oils are generally vegetable oils similar to the oils that we cook with except that are cold pressed to maintain their healing properties.
Essential oils are used to promote healing in both the body and mind. They are found in many bath and body products as well as in candles and various other types of fragrance diffusers sold around the world. They may be inhaled, absorbed through the skin or ingested in food. When inhaled the oils are absorbed into the bloodstream, through the blood vessels in the lungs, and consequently circulated throughout the body. A few drops of essential oil may be added to a bath, massage oil, lotion, or candle to deliver their healing benefits. They are often used in fragrancers to disperse their scent more effectively over a period of time. Fragrancers diffuse the oil into the air through steam, mist, dry heat or evaporation (using a fan). In a pinch 3- 5 drops of an essential oil of your choosing in a cup of hot water will do.When shopping for essential oils the term “wildcrafted” pops up periodically. Wildcrafted plants are gathered from their natural, wild habitat and generally wildcrafting would entail taking only the small parts that are necessary so that the plant remains alive and flourishes. If the whole plant is needed then seeds are taken from the plant and replanted in the same area to maintain the balance.

The following is a list of several essential oils and the ailments that they are used to treat. There are hundreds of different essential oils and each one has a number of healing properties. If you are interested in learning more there is a wealth of information on the Internet or you may also find information at your local health food store. Many health food stores have resource guides available to their customers.

Jasmine – Anxiety, Catarrh, Confidence Booster, Cough, Headache, Laryngitis, Mental Tension, Sensitive or Dry Skin

Tea Tree – Age Spots, Athlete’s Foot, Boils, Burns, Catarrh, Colds, Corns, Cystitis, Dandruff, Fungal Infections, Immune System Booster, Itching, Sunburn, Urinary Tract Infections, Warts

Lavender – Acne, Anxiety, Bronchitis, Burns, Catarrh, Chilblains, Circulatory Problems, Colds, Dandruff, Eczema, Flu, Headaches, Insect Bites, Insomnia, Muscle Aches and Pains, PMS Symptoms, Psoriasis, Rheumatism, Sinusitis, Skin Problems, Sunburn, Tension, Throat Infection, Wounds and Sores

Rosemary – Burns, Cellulite, Colds, Digestive Problems, Fatigue, Flu, Gout, Liver and Gall Bladder Problems, Oily Skin, Poor Circulation, Rheumatism, Water Retention, Wounds

Eucalyptus – Air Disinfectant, Asthma, Bronchitis, Burns, Cuts, Decongestant, Flu, Headaches, Insect Repellant, Muscle Aches, Rheumatism, Sinusitis, Skin Ulcers, Urinary Infections, Wounds

Marjoram – Anxiety, Arthritis, Bronchitis, Bruises, Colic, Constipation, Digestive Problems, Flatulence, Insomnia, Muscle Aches and Pains, PMS Symptoms, Rheumatism, Sinusitis, Sprains

Bergamot – Abscesses, Acne, Boils, Chicken Pox, Colds, Cold Sores, Cystitis, Flatulence, Loss of Appetite, Mouth Infections, Sore Throat

Basil – Bronchitis, Colds, Constipation, Insect Bites, Mental Fatigue, Migraine, Nervous Tension, Rheumatism, Sinus Congestion.

Clary Sage – Asthma, Depression, Digestive Problems, Exhaustion, Muscle Cramps and Spasms, PMS Relief, Respiratory Problems

Ginger – Arthritis, Bronchitis, Catarrh, Colds, Colic, Constipation, Diarrhea, Exhaustion, Flatulence, Flu, Indigestion, Poor Circulation, Rheumatism, Sinusitis

Sandalwood – Anxiety, Bronchitis, Cystitis, Fatigue, Frigidity, Impotence, Immune System Booster, Nervous Tension, Skin Conditions (such as acne, dry skin, eczema), Sore Throat, Stress, Urinary Infections, Water Retention

Myrrh – Arthritis, Bronchitis, Colds, Cough, Digestive Problems, Mouth and Gum Problems, Stimulates Immune System

Rose – Aging Skin, Broken Veins, Depression, Dry Skin, Headache, Insomnia, PMS Symptoms, Sensitive Skin, Sore Throat, Stress

Ylang Ylang – Anxiety, High Blood Pressure, Intestinal Problems, Sexual Dysfunction, Stress

The following is a list of conditions that it has been recommended the corresponding oils not be used under. If you have questions consult a medical herbalist.

During Pregnancy Do Not Use – Basil, Cinnamon, Clary Sage, Cypress, Fennel, Jasmine, Juniper, Marjoram, Myrrh, Origanum, Pennyroyal, Peppermint, Rose, Rosemary, Sage, Savory and Thyme

While Breast Feeding Do Not Use – Mint, Parsley, Sage and Jasmine

If You Have High Blood Pressure Do Not Use – Cypress, Eucalyptus, Ginger, Rose, Rosemary, Sage and Thyme

If You Have Low Blood Pressure Do Not Use – Clary sage, Garlic, Lavender, Lemon, Marjoram and Ylang Ylang

If You Have Epilepsy Do Not Use – Fennel, Hyssop, Rosemary, Sage and Wormwood

Use care when using heavy machinery or driving if you are using Clary Sage and Vertivert

Use care when combining Clary Sage with alcohol.

Essential oils have amazing healing abilities and when used properly they can be quite effective. To assure the most effective treatment as well as avoid any potential problems one should always seek out the advice of a qualified practitioner when using essential oils as with any other method of healing, holistic or otherwise.

Sources:
http://www.holisticshop.co.uk/library/b_ess.html
http://www.sunflowerstudio.co.uk/url/AromatherapyHistory.php
http://www.spiritsofnativelight.org/aromatherapy.htm

ref: http://voices.yahoo.com/history-essential-oils-their-medical-847407.html

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More History:

Essential oils are the subtle, aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from the flowers, seeds, leaves, stems, bark and roots of herbs, bushes, shrubs and trees through distillation. In the craft of alchemy, the soul of a plant is its oil, while its spirit is the plant’s alcohol or tincture. According to ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics and Chinese manuscripts, priests and alchemists were using essential oils thousands of y
ears ago to heal the sick. They are the oldest form of medicine and cosmetic known to man and were considered more valuable than gold to the ancients.The ancient Egyptians believed that the sense of smell and ability to detect odors was the most important of our sensory abilities. The considered the sense of smell far more important than sight or even the ability to think. That was because they knew the importance of odors to increase our intrinsic “frequency” and transform us. The utchat pendant shown here, found on the mummy of Tutankhamen, depicts the alchemy of spiritual nourishment both in the afterlife and in the created world. This is the Eye of Ra, symbolizing the Sun and solar energies. It is flanked by Nekhebet the Vulture of Upper Egypt (female intuitive consciousness that becomes pregnant by the Wind) and the Cobra of Lower Egypt (masculine intellectual consciousness that creates existence from duality). Together, the Vulture and Cobra make up the diadem (Third Eye) crown of the pharaohs.The physical eye is the part of the body able to perceive light and is therefore the symbol for spiritual abilities and energy. Egyptian texts that describe the Eye of Ra, portray it in terms of “eating” or absorbing spiritual “food” through the various senses. The senses are ordered according to their importance and how much energy must be “eaten” for an individual to receive a particular sensation or utilize the energy. In this scheme, all sensory data input is considered “food” on the spiritual level. In fact, the amount of spiritual energy derived from this metaphysical feasting is precisely expressed, and the construction of the Eye of Ra follows very definite laws. The parts of the sacred eye are assigned fractional values of the total spiritual nutrition available to us, which is 1 = 64/64 heqat. (The following sensory input channels total 63/64. According to legend, the missing 1/64th is the magical and infinite yet hidden energy supplied by Thoth.) The basic measure of sensory eating is called the “ro” and is equal to one “mouthful.” 320 ro = 1 heqat or one “handful” of food from the sun. The energy intake is assigned as follows: 1/64 heqat = Energy of Touch (physical sensation symbolized by a stalk planted in the ground supporting the eye at the center); 1/32 heqat = Energy of Taste (symbolized by the curly grain or wheat sprout from comes from the planted stalk); 1/16 heqat = Energy of Hearing (symbolized by the left part of eye that points to ear, which absorbs vibration); 1/8 heqat = Energy of Thought (symbolized by the eyebrow that expresses thought and reacts to it); 1/4 heqat = Energy of Sight (symbolized by the pupil of eye that absorbs light images or crystallized thoughtforms). However, the most energy absorption available to the human is assigned to the nose. 1/2 heqat = Energy of Smell (symbolized by the right part of eye that points toward the nose). Smell, then, represents the subtlest sense of odor and intuition, which was the soul-centered “Intelligence of the Heart” to the Egyptians. Without this higher nourishment, our spirit starves, becomes weak, and eventually dies.Oils have been used throughout history to evoke altered states of consciousness and initiate individuals into certain spiritual traditions. To “anoit” (from the Latin inunctus – “to smear with oil) is to make a person sacred, to set them apart and dedicate them to serve a higher spiritual purpose. In fact, the Bible refers to the use of anoiting oils over 150 times, and the Hebrew form of “messiah” and the Greek form of Christ literally mean “anointed.”Our modern science is only now beginning to investigate the incredible healing energy found in essential oils. Clinical research shows, for instance, that frankincense oil contains very high immune stimulating properties. The effectiveness of essential oils cannot be fully understood without some discussion of frequency. Frequency is the measurable rate of electrical energy flow that is constant between any two points. Everything has a frequency. Dr. Robert O. Becker in his book The Body Electric establishes that the human body has an electrical frequency and that much about a person’s health can be determined by it’s frequency. In 1992, Bruce Tainio of Tainio Technology, an independent division of Eastern State University in Cheny, Washington, built the first frequency monitor in the world. Tainio has determined that the average frequency of the human body during the daytime is 62-68 Hz. (A healthy body frequency is in the range of 62-72 Hz.) When the frequency drops, the immune system is compromised. If the frequency drops to 58 Hz, cold and flu symptoms appear, at 55 Hz, diseases like Candida take hold, at 52 Hz, Epstein Bar and at 42 Hz, Cancer.According to Dr. Royal R. Rife, every disease has a frequency. He found that certain frequencies can prevent development of disease and that others would destroy disease. Substances with higher frequency will destroy diseases of a lower frequency. The study of frequencies raises important questions concerning the frequencies of substances we eat, breath and absorb. Many pollutants lower healthy frequency. Processed/canned foods have a frequency of zero. Fresh produce has up to 15 Hz, dry herbs from 12 to 22 Hz, and fresh herbs from 20 to 27 Hz. Essential oils start at 52 Hz and go as high as 320 Hz, which is the frequency of Turkish rose oil. Clinical research shows that essential oils have the highest frequency of any natural substance known to man, creating an environment in which disease, bacteria, virus, fungus, etc., cannot survive.The penetrating characteristic of essential oils greatly enhances their ability to be effective. Essential oils will penetrate into the body when applied to the skin. An essential oil placed on the foot will be distributed to every cell in the body in 21 minutes. They will even penetrate a finger or toe nail to treat fungus underneath. The oils may be sniffed from cupped hands or diffused to elicit higher vibrations or states of consciousness during meditation. They may also be applied topically on the chakra points, neck, face, wrists, ankles, back, behind the ears, on the reflexology points on the bottom of the feet, or added to bath water, or worn as a perfume or cologne to raise the level of your personal environment.ref: http://www.crucible.org/oils_history.htm
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And now that we have a framework of the history of extracting essential oils, lets talk extraction methods commonly used to create these precious essences.

Distillation of essential oils

We owe a great debt to the Arabian alchemist (and physician) Ibn Sina – also known as Avicenna, who lived 980 – 1037 AD, since he was the first one to perfect steam distillation – and his process was so good that it stayed unchanged for a couple of hundred years.

Distillation of essential oils

Distillation converts the volatile liquid (the essential oils) into a vapor and then condenses the vapor back into a liquid – it is the most popular, and cost effective method in use today in producing essential oils.

The downside of distillation is the fact that heat is used in this extraction method, which makes it totally unacceptable for use on very fragile material, or where the oils are extracted with great difficulty.

When this method of extraction is applied, great care has to be taken with the temperature and length of exposure of the heat to prevent damage to the oils.

For more information please click the appropriate hyperlink Distillation of essential oils avicenna steam distillation

Ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/distillation.htm

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Water distillation in the extraction of essential oils

In the manufacture of essential oils using the method of water distillation, the botanic material is completely immersed in water and the still is brought to the boil. This method protects the oils so extracted to a certain degree since the surrounding water acts as a barrier to prevent it from overheating.

water distillation extraction of essential oils

When the condensed material cools down, the water and essential oil is separated and the oil decanted to be used as essential oil.

The water that is so separated in this process is also used and is marketed as “floral waters” (also called hydrosol orsweet water) – such as rosewater, lavender water and orange water.

Water distillation can be done at reduced pressure (under vacuum) to reduce the temperature to less than 100 degrees, which is beneficial in protecting the botanical material, as well as the essential oils.

Neroli oil, which is sensitive to heat, can therefore be successfully extracted using this method.

If extended exposure to hot water is not indicated for a particular plant – such as lavender, it is best to find an extraction method better suited. Any botanical material that contains high amounts of esters do not take well to this extraction method, since the extended exposure to hot water will start to break down the esters to the resultant alcohols and carboxylic acids.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/water-distillation.htm

Steam distillation of essential oil manufacture.

When steam distillation is used in the manufacture and extraction of essential oils, the botanical material is placed in a still and steam is forced over the material.

steam distrillation of essential oil

The hot steam helps to release the aromatic molecules from the plant material since the steam forces open the pockets in which the oils are kept in the plant material. The molecules of these volatile oils then escape from the plant material and evaporate into the steam.

The temperature of the steam needs to be carefully controlled – just enough to force the plant material to let go of the essential oil, yet not too hot as to burn the plant material or the essential oil.

The steam which then contains the essential oil, is passed through a cooling system to condense the steam, which forms a liquid from which the essential oil and water is then separated.

The steam is produced at greater pressure than the atmosphere and therefore boils at above 100 degrees Celsius which facilitates the removal of the essential oil from the plant material at a faster rate and in so doing prevents damage to the oil.

Some oils, like Lavender is heat sensitive (thermolabile) and with this extraction method, the oil is not damaged and ingredients like linalyl acetate will not decompose to linalool and acetic acid.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/steam-distillation.htm

Hydro diffusion in essential oil manufacture

When essential oils are extracted using hydro diffusion it is a type of steam distillation, and only varies in the actual way in which the steam is introduced into the still. With hydro diffusion the steam is fed in from the top onto the botanical material instead of from the bottom as in normal steam distillation.

hydro,diffusion

The condensation of the oil containing steam mixture occurs below the area in which the botanical material is held in place by a grill. The main advantage of this method is that less steam is used, shorter processing time and a higher oil yield.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/hydro-diffusion.htm

Cohobation in essential oil extraction

When rose oil is extracted during water distillation, the one main constituent – phenyl ethyl alcohol – dissolves into the water of the distillation still and does not form part of the essential oil that is so extracted.

cohobation rose otto

The oil so extracted is therefore not whole, and is deficient in this rose-smelling ingredient – and in order to produce a “complete” oil, the phenyl ethyl alcohol needs to be distilled from the water in which it dissolved and added back to the “incomplete oil”.

When this phenyl ethyl alcohol is so distilled, it is added back to the original distillate, in the correct proportion, to form a complete and whole rose oil, and is then called Rose Otto.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/cohobation.htm

Rectification in extraction of essential oils

When an essential oil contains any impurities, it can be purified by re-distillation – either in steam or in a vacuum, and this purification by re-distillation is referred to as rectification.

Rectification in extraction of essential oils

An example of this is eucalyptus oil that is marketed as “double-distilled”. This is not the same as chemical or heat refining and is used to produce oil of standard quality.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/rectification.htm

Combination water and steam distillation

This process is basically a marriage between normal water distillation and that of steam distillation.

The botanical material is immersed in water in a still, which has a heat source, plus live steam is fed into the water and botanical material mixture.

combination distilling Water and steam distillation of essential oils

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/water-steam-distillation.htm

Fractional distillation

When people talk about fractional distillation, it refers to a normal distillation process, but instead of the essential oil being collected continuously, it is collected in batches (the fractions that are referred to) and material normally so extracted isYlang-Ylang.

fractional,distillation

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/fractional-distillation.htm

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Expression extraction in essential oil manufacture

When a “cold pressed” method is referred to in the manufacture of carrier oil and essential oils, it basically refers to the expression method, since no heat is involved in this method.

essential oil manufacture

Most nut and seed oils are also extracted using a “cold pressed” method but here oil is forced from the material under high mechanical pressure and generally produces a good quality oil, but some manufacturers do impair this good quality by excessively refining the oil after extraction by means of chemicals or high heat.

But when we return to look at the expression method of extraction in the manufacture of essential oils, we find that most citrus essential oils are extracted this way and that three different ways are used to accomplish it:

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/expression.htm

Sponge extraction process

Most citrus essences are extracted by means of expression, and in the past were done by hand where the fruit pulp was removed, with the rind and pith then soaked in warm water to make the rind more pliable, since the pith of the fruit absorbed the water.

sponge,extraction

After the fruit has absorbed the water and become more elastic, it was inverted which helped to rupture the oil cells and a sponge placed next to the rind. It was then squeezed to release the volatile oil, which was then collected directly into the sponge.

As soon as the sponge became saturated with oil, it was squeezed and the essential oil collected in a vessel and then decanted.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/sponge-expression.htm

Écuelle à piquer extraction process

This form of expression extraction is used mainly to obtain citrus essential oils, and is a little less labor intensive than that of the sponge method.

ecuelle a piquer essential oil extraction punturing oil cells in peel

This more modern way of essential oil extraction is referred to as the écuelle à piquer process (direct translation = basin, to prick/stick/prod) where the fruit is placed in a device and rotated with spikes on the side puncturing the oil cells in the skin of the fruit.

This cause the oil cells to rupture and the essential oil, and other material such as pigment, to run down to the center of the device, which contains a collection area.

The liquid is thereafter separated and the oil is removed from the water-based parts of the mixture and decanted.

http://www.essentialoils.co.za/ecuelle-a-piquer.htm

Machine abrasion to produce essential oil

This method of expression extraction is very much like the écuelle à piquer method, and is mostly used in the manufacture of citrus essential oils.

machine abrasion extraction

With machine abrasion a machine strips off the outer peel, which is then removed by running water and is then fed into a centrifugal separator.

The centrifugal separation is done extremely fast but it should be noted that due to the fact that the essential oil is combined with other cell content for some time, some alteration could occur due to enzymatic action.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/machine-abrasion.htm

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SOLVENT EXTRACTION

Solvent extraction and essential oil

When we talk about the broad term of solvent extraction, it does not only refer to chemical solvents like hexane, but also to other forms – such as solid oil and fat as well as carbon dioxide.

solvent extraction

Solvent extraction is particularly suitable for botanical material that has a very low yield of essential oil, or where it is made up of mostly resinous components and as such delivers a far finer fragrance than that of distillation.

During this type of extraction, non-volatile components of the botanical material – such as waxes and pigments are also extracted and in some cases this is then removed during another process.

Under solvent extraction we list the following methods:

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/solvent-extraction.htm

Maceration extraction method

With the maceration extraction method, the flowers are soaked in hot oil to have their cell membranes ruptured and the hot oil then absorbs the essence. The oil is then cleared of the botanical and decanted.

maceration oils Maceration extraction essential oil infused oil

This is very much the same technique used in solvent extractions, where solvents are used instead of the hot oil as used in maceration.

http://www.essentialoils.co.za/maceration.htm

Enfleurage extraction of essential oils

Enfleurage could be compared to certain aspects employed in maceration, but is done in a slightly different way.

enfleurage extraction essential oils chassis en verre pour l'enfleurage

Glass plates in a frame (called a chassis) are covered with highly purified and odorless vegetable or animal fat and the petals of the botanical matter that are being extracted are spread across it and pressed in. The flowers are normally freshly picked before so encased in their fatty bed.

Time left in the fat on the chassis Enfleurage extraction of essential oils

The petals remain in this greasy compound for a few days or a couple of weeks (depending on the botanic material used) to allow the essence to disperse into the compound, where the then depleted petals are removed and replaced with a fresh harvest of petals.

This process is repeated until the greasy mix is saturated with the essence, and needs to be repeated a couple of times until saturation is achieved.

Enfleurage extraction of essential oils

When the mix has reached saturation point the flowers are removed and the enfleurage pomade – the fat and fragrant oil – then washed with alcohol to separate the extract from the remaining fat, which is then used to make soap.

As soon as the alcohol evaporates from the mixture you are left with the essential oil. This is a very labor-intensive way of extraction, and needless to say a very costly way to obtain essential oil and is nowadays only sometimes used to extract essential oil from tuberoses and jasmine.

http://www.essentialoils.co.za/enfleurage.htm

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Solvent extraction in essential oil manufacture

Essential oils can be extracted by using solvents such as petroleum ether, methanol, ethanol or hexane and is often used on fragile material such as jasminehyacinthnarcissus and tuberose, which would not be able to handle the heat of steam distillation.

hydrocarbon solvent extraction essential oil

A solvent extracted essential oil is very concentrated and is very close to the natural fragrance of the material used.

Although solvent extraction is used extensively, some people do not believe that it should be used for aromatherapy oils since a residue of solvent could be present in the finished product.

Some reports site a solvent residue of 6 – 20% still present in the finished extraction, but this was normally the case when benzene was the standard solvent used.

With hexane (a hydrocarbon) as the solvent material the solvent residue goes down to about 10 ppm (parts per million) and this is a extremely low concentration of solvent in the resultant product.

As mentioned, benzene is no longer used in the extraction method, since it is regarded as carcinogenic (cancer forming).

After the plant material has been treated with the solvent, it produces a waxy aromatic compound referred to as a “concrete“.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/solvent.htm

Hypercritical Carbon Dioxide gas
CO2 extraction of essential oils

The use of hypercritical carbon dioxide extraction is a fairly new way to extract essential oils from botanical material and although a bit on the expensive side, does yield good quality oils.

CO2 extraction essential oils hypercritical carbon dioxide gas

Carbon dioxide becomes hypercritical at 33 degrees Celsius, which is a state in which it is not really gas or liquid, but has qualities of both, and is an excellent solvent to use in the extraction of essential oils since the low temperature required and the fact that the process is near to instantaneous.

The carbon dioxide is furthermore inert and therefore does not chemically interact with the essence that is being extracted. To remove the carbon dioxide solvent, you simply need to remove the pressure under which it is kept.

This process has to take place in a closed chamber for the hypercritical pressure required for carbon dioxide is 200 atmospheres – that is 200 times the pressure of normal atmosphere.

To achieve this type of pressure some heavy-duty stainless steel equipment is required, and this is where high capital investment is required for this extraction method.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/hypercritical-c02-carbon-dioxide.htm

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Why is the art of perfume making important? Safety, purity of medications as well as spiritual use.

Sula Benet (1903 – 1982), also known as Sara Benetowa, was a Polish anthropologist of the 20th century who studied Polish and Judaic customs and traditions.

Born in Poland, Benet was fascinated with peasant culture of Poland since her early youth. This interest eventually led her to enroll as a student of literature and philosophy in the Faculty of Humanities in the University of Warsaw but graduated with a degree in anthropology. Upon receiving her degree in 1935, she attended graduate school at Columbia University, where she received her doctorate in 1944.

[edit]Works

  • Festive recipes and festival menus 1957
  • Song, Dance, and Customs of Peasant Poland[when?]Riddles of many lands Carl Withers, Sula Benet – 1956
  • Early Diffusion and Folk Uses of Hemp. 1967
  • Abkhasians: the long-living people of the Caucasus 1974
  • How to live to be 100: the life-style of the people of the Caucasus 1976

[edit]Early Diffusion and Folk Uses of Hemp. 1967

Benet’s writings have gained modern notability[citation needed] for her interpretations of the herb appearing in Hebrew text as kaneh-bosim (Hebrew קְנֵה-בֹשֶׂם) five times in the Hebrew Bible and how it relates to the religious use of cannabisKaneh-bosm is mentioned twice as part of the holy anointing oil used in the temple, and has been interpreted traditionally as calamus (an herb that is known in North American shamanism and in vedic atharva and has been discovered in modern times to contain a molecule known as Asarone that is a precursor of trimethoxyamphetamine, a psychedelic). Through comparative etymology, analysis of ancient texts (including pre-Hebrew Semitic language), and pharmacological consistencies she contends that the word kaneh-bosm actually refers to cannabis and was used in ancient Jewish religious rites, as a medicine and ritual sacrament. Benet’s work claims that cannabis use has a long culturally important history, and that the criminalization and demonization of cannabis is a recent invention (an occurrence of the previous century compared to Torah: dating back at least 3,000 years). While Benet’s conclusion regarding the psychoactive use of cannabis are not generally recognized among Jewishscholars, there is general agreement that hemp (“Kaneh”) is used in talmudic sources to refer to hemp fibers, as hemp was a vital commodity before linen replaced it.[1] Benet claims that traditional identifications of kaneh bosom do not account for hemp shirts being produced from industrial hemp, which Benet claims is “Kaneh” in Hebrew.[2] Benet claims that this kaneh differs from the “fragrant” or “sweet” hemp called especially kaneh bosm, because the latter produces much more of aromatic and psychotropic substances like CBD and THC.[2] [3]Exodus records Moses receiving the instructions for making and distributing the holy anointing oil, as follows:

Then the LORD said to Moses, “Take the following fine spices: 500 shekels of liquid myrrh, half as much of fragrant cinnamon, 250 shekels of kaneh bosm, 500 shekels of cassia – all according to the sanctuary shekel–and a hind of olive oil. Make these into a sacred anointing oil” (Exodus 30: 22-33)

The Hebrew term kaneh (קָנֶה) is the standard Hebrew word for “cane” or “reed,” occurring 62 times in the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible [4] It usually occurs without the adjective “sweet,” and is translated “reed,” though twice as calamus (Song of Songs 4:14 and Ezekiel 27:19 KJV). It occurs with the adjective “sweet” in three places (Exodus 30:22-33, Isaiah 43:24, Jeremiah 6:20), where kaneh bosm is typically translated as “calamus,” “sweet cane” or “fragrant cane” in English versions.

Sula Benet’s theory is not supported by academic or popular dictionaries of plants in the Hebrew Bible, which typically identify the plant as acorus calamus or cymbopogon citratus.[5][edit]See also

[edit]References

  1. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica. Volume 8. p. 323.
  2. a b Sula Benet, Early Diffusion and Folk Uses of Hemp. (Reprinted in Cannabis and Culture, Vera Rubin, Ed. pg.41 The Hague: Mouton, 1975.) Transcribed and available online by inactive Anchorage NORML chapter, at [1]
  3. ^ Sara Benetowa (Sula Benet), Tracing One Word Through Different Languages. (1936). (Reprinted in The Book of Grass, 1967.)
  4. ^ Hebrew Concordance
  5. ^ Lytton J. Musselman Figs , dates, laurel, and myrrh: plants of the Bible and the Quran p73

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Exodus 30:25
Complete Jewish Bible (CJB)
25 and make them into a holy anointing oil; blend it and perfume it as would an expert perfume-maker; it will be a holy anointing oil.

other translations:
New International Version (©1984)
Make these into a sacred anointing oil, a fragrant blend, the work of a perfumer. It will be the sacred anointing oil.
New Living Translation (©2007)
Like a skilled incense maker, blend these ingredients to make a holy anointing oil.

English Standard Version (©2001)
And you shall make of these a sacred anointing oil blended as by the perfumer; it shall be a holy anointing oil.

New American Standard Bible (©1995)
“You shall make of these a holy anointing oil, a perfume mixture, the work of a perfumer; it shall be a holy anointing oil.

King James Bible (Cambridge Ed.)
And thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be an holy anointing oil.

GOD’S WORD® Translation (©1995)
Have a perfumer make these into a holy oil, a fragrant mixture, used only for anointing. This will be the holy oil used for anointing.

King James 2000 Bible (©2003)
And you shall make it an oil of holy anointing, an ointment compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

American King James Version
And you shall make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the are of the apothecary: it shall be an holy anointing oil.

American Standard Version
And thou shalt make it a holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And thou shalt make the holy oil of unction, an ointment compounded after the art of the perfumer,

Darby Bible Translation
and make of it an oil of holy ointment, a perfume of perfumery after the work of the perfumer: it shall be the holy anointing oil.

English Revised Version
and thou shalt make it an holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be an holy anointing oil.

Webster’s Bible Translation
And thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

World English Bible
You shall make it a holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

Young’s Literal Translation
and thou hast made it a holy anointing oil, a compound mixture, work of a compounder; it is a holy anointing oil.
http://bible.cc/exodus/30-25.htm

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Bréedhéen O’Rilley Keefer

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Franktown, Colorado 80116

Rick Simpson on Visual Inspection and Quality of Oils: Debunked

There is ABSOLUTELY no science behind this… the two types we see in this video are from two extraction methods…. the amber stuff is made from Naphtha. I’ve already made it plain why the petroleum distillate Naphtha is dangerous to use as a solvent in this blogpost. The deep green stuff is produced with alcohol. When you use alcohol as a solvent, you get chlorophyll in your oil. Chlorophyll is among the compounds known to treat and even prevent cancer. Rick is totally contradicting himself and many patients who have cured themselves with the dark green stuff. I’m not an old hippie, but I have sat at the feet of many old heads and respected their wisdom…. Any old head will remember the highly coveted “Jamaican Hash Oil” that always came dark green (perhaps with some red undertones) when it was spread out on a joint-paper. Any old head who remembers Jamaican Hash oil knows it has all the medicine necessary to have a very baked day.

The same substance long coveted by recreational users is now being used to treat seriously ill people for a wide range of illnesses. What makes more sense to your mind? To use a petroleum distillate known to be dangerous that the government monitors heavily, or to use an alcohol solvent that is sustainable, easily recyclable, widely available, and with a long history alongside humans as a solvent to extract medicines?

I realize that most people don’t know much about perfume making, but perfume making has a long history. To illustrate my point regarding why Naphtha is not a good solvent to make a cancer cure therapy, I’ll share with you a bit of the history of extracting botanicals and the science behind it.

I’ve been making my own perfume since I was a little girl….. we’d go gather fragrant wildflowers and make lovely little blends… Think about the history of collecting a bouquet of flowers to take to a girl you favor… Our ancestors did things with purpose. A girl who would make a good wife would know how to take those flowers and create perfume with them… if you can extract perfume, you likely have some knowledge of plants and herbs. If you have knowledge of plants and herbs, you are likely a fair cook and a source of healing for any illnesses in the children, thus the way a maiden handled her bouquet could let the gentleman in question know how skilled a wife she may make.

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So just what are essential oils? what is their history? why do we make them? what are they good for?

An essential oil is a concentrated hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants. Essential oils are also known as volatile oils, ethereal oils or aetherolea, or simply as the “oil of” the plant from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove. An oil is “essential” in the sense that it carries a distinctive scent, or essence, of the plant. Essential oils do not form a distinctive category for any medical, pharmacological, or culinary purpose.

Essential oils are generally extracted by distillation. Steam distillation is often used. Other processes include expression or solvent extraction. They are used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and other products, for flavoring food and drink, and for adding scents to incense and household cleaning products.
Various essential oils have been used medicinally at different periods in history. Medical applications proposed by those who sell medicinal oils range from skin treatments to remedies for cancer, and often are based solely on historical accounts of use of essential oils for these purposes. Claims for the efficacy of medical treatments and treatment of cancers in particular, are now subject to regulation in most countries.
As the use of essential oils has declined in evidence-based medicine, one must consult older textbooks for much information on their use.[1][2] Modern works are less inclined to generalize; rather than refer to “essential oils” as a class at all, they prefer to discuss specific compounds, such as methyl salicylate, rather than “oil of wintergreen”.[3][4]
Interest in essential oils has revived in recent decades with the popularity of aromatherapy, a branch of alternative medicine that claims that essential oils and other aromatic compounds have curative effects. Oils are volatilized or diluted in a carrier oil and used in massage, diffused in the air by a nebulizer, heated over a candle flame, or burned as incense.
The techniques and methods first used to produce essential oils were first mentioned by Ibn al-Baitar (1188–1248), an Andalusian physician, pharmacist and chemist.[5]

ref: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Essential_oil

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The History of Essential Oils

The origins of the holistic method of healing known today as aromatherapy dates back to 18,000 BC. Cave paintings in Lascaux, France depict the burning of aromatic plants, thought to be used to drive out evil spirits. Essential oils have been used in Ayurveda (traditional Indian medicine) for several hundred years. They were used in ancient Greece and Rome and there has been documentation as far back as 2800 BC, during the reign of Khufu in ancient Egypt, of oils, wines and i
ncenses being infused with plant essences. The concentrated plant essences are extracted from leaves, seeds, bark or other plant elements by either distillation or cold pressing. The plant essences are then combined with what’s called a carrier oil and thus they become ‘essential oils’. Carrier oils are generally vegetable oils similar to the oils that we cook with except that are cold pressed to maintain their healing properties.
Essential oils are used to promote healing in both the body and mind. They are found in many bath and body products as well as in candles and various other types of fragrance diffusers sold around the world. They may be inhaled, absorbed through the skin or ingested in food. When inhaled the oils are absorbed into the bloodstream, through the blood vessels in the lungs, and consequently circulated throughout the body. A few drops of essential oil may be added to a bath, massage oil, lotion, or candle to deliver their healing benefits. They are often used in fragrancers to disperse their scent more effectively over a period of time. Fragrancers diffuse the oil into the air through steam, mist, dry heat or evaporation (using a fan). In a pinch 3- 5 drops of an essential oil of your choosing in a cup of hot water will do.When shopping for essential oils the term “wildcrafted” pops up periodically. Wildcrafted plants are gathered from their natural, wild habitat and generally wildcrafting would entail taking only the small parts that are necessary so that the plant remains alive and flourishes. If the whole plant is needed then seeds are taken from the plant and replanted in the same area to maintain the balance.

The following is a list of several essential oils and the ailments that they are used to treat. There are hundreds of different essential oils and each one has a number of healing properties. If you are interested in learning more there is a wealth of information on the Internet or you may also find information at your local health food store. Many health food stores have resource guides available to their customers.

Jasmine – Anxiety, Catarrh, Confidence Booster, Cough, Headache, Laryngitis, Mental Tension, Sensitive or Dry Skin

Tea Tree – Age Spots, Athlete’s Foot, Boils, Burns, Catarrh, Colds, Corns, Cystitis, Dandruff, Fungal Infections, Immune System Booster, Itching, Sunburn, Urinary Tract Infections, Warts

Lavender – Acne, Anxiety, Bronchitis, Burns, Catarrh, Chilblains, Circulatory Problems, Colds, Dandruff, Eczema, Flu, Headaches, Insect Bites, Insomnia, Muscle Aches and Pains, PMS Symptoms, Psoriasis, Rheumatism, Sinusitis, Skin Problems, Sunburn, Tension, Throat Infection, Wounds and Sores

Rosemary – Burns, Cellulite, Colds, Digestive Problems, Fatigue, Flu, Gout, Liver and Gall Bladder Problems, Oily Skin, Poor Circulation, Rheumatism, Water Retention, Wounds

Eucalyptus – Air Disinfectant, Asthma, Bronchitis, Burns, Cuts, Decongestant, Flu, Headaches, Insect Repellant, Muscle Aches, Rheumatism, Sinusitis, Skin Ulcers, Urinary Infections, Wounds

Marjoram – Anxiety, Arthritis, Bronchitis, Bruises, Colic, Constipation, Digestive Problems, Flatulence, Insomnia, Muscle Aches and Pains, PMS Symptoms, Rheumatism, Sinusitis, Sprains

Bergamot – Abscesses, Acne, Boils, Chicken Pox, Colds, Cold Sores, Cystitis, Flatulence, Loss of Appetite, Mouth Infections, Sore Throat

Basil – Bronchitis, Colds, Constipation, Insect Bites, Mental Fatigue, Migraine, Nervous Tension, Rheumatism, Sinus Congestion.

Clary Sage – Asthma, Depression, Digestive Problems, Exhaustion, Muscle Cramps and Spasms, PMS Relief, Respiratory Problems

Ginger – Arthritis, Bronchitis, Catarrh, Colds, Colic, Constipation, Diarrhea, Exhaustion, Flatulence, Flu, Indigestion, Poor Circulation, Rheumatism, Sinusitis

Sandalwood – Anxiety, Bronchitis, Cystitis, Fatigue, Frigidity, Impotence, Immune System Booster, Nervous Tension, Skin Conditions (such as acne, dry skin, eczema), Sore Throat, Stress, Urinary Infections, Water Retention

Myrrh – Arthritis, Bronchitis, Colds, Cough, Digestive Problems, Mouth and Gum Problems, Stimulates Immune System

Rose – Aging Skin, Broken Veins, Depression, Dry Skin, Headache, Insomnia, PMS Symptoms, Sensitive Skin, Sore Throat, Stress

Ylang Ylang – Anxiety, High Blood Pressure, Intestinal Problems, Sexual Dysfunction, Stress

The following is a list of conditions that it has been recommended the corresponding oils not be used under. If you have questions consult a medical herbalist.

During Pregnancy Do Not Use – Basil, Cinnamon, Clary Sage, Cypress, Fennel, Jasmine, Juniper, Marjoram, Myrrh, Origanum, Pennyroyal, Peppermint, Rose, Rosemary, Sage, Savory and Thyme

While Breast Feeding Do Not Use – Mint, Parsley, Sage and Jasmine

If You Have High Blood Pressure Do Not Use – Cypress, Eucalyptus, Ginger, Rose, Rosemary, Sage and Thyme

If You Have Low Blood Pressure Do Not Use – Clary sage, Garlic, Lavender, Lemon, Marjoram and Ylang Ylang

If You Have Epilepsy Do Not Use – Fennel, Hyssop, Rosemary, Sage and Wormwood

Use care when using heavy machinery or driving if you are using Clary Sage and Vertivert

Use care when combining Clary Sage with alcohol.

Essential oils have amazing healing abilities and when used properly they can be quite effective. To assure the most effective treatment as well as avoid any potential problems one should always seek out the advice of a qualified practitioner when using essential oils as with any other method of healing, holistic or otherwise.

Sources:
http://www.holisticshop.co.uk/library/b_ess.html
http://www.sunflowerstudio.co.uk/url/AromatherapyHistory.php
http://www.spiritsofnativelight.org/aromatherapy.htm

ref: http://voices.yahoo.com/history-essential-oils-their-medical-847407.html

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More History:

Essential oils are the subtle, aromatic and volatile liquids extracted from the flowers, seeds, leaves, stems, bark and roots of herbs, bushes, shrubs and trees through distillation. In the craft of alchemy, the soul of a plant is its oil, while its spirit is the plant’s alcohol or tincture. According to ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics and Chinese manuscripts, priests and alchemists were using essential oils thousands of y

ears ago to heal the sick. They are the oldest form of medicine and cosmetic known to man and were considered more valuable than gold to the ancients.The ancient Egyptians believed that the sense of smell and ability to detect odors was the most important of our sensory abilities. The considered the sense of smell far more important than sight or even the ability to think. That was because they knew the importance of odors to increase our intrinsic “frequency” and transform us. The utchat pendant shown here, found on the mummy of Tutankhamen, depicts the alchemy of spiritual nourishment both in the afterlife and in the created world. This is the Eye of Ra, symbolizing the Sun and solar energies. It is flanked by Nekhebet the Vulture of Upper Egypt (female intuitive consciousness that becomes pregnant by the Wind) and the Cobra of Lower Egypt (masculine intellectual consciousness that creates existence from duality). Together, the Vulture and Cobra make up the diadem (Third Eye) crown of the pharaohs.The physical eye is the part of the body able to perceive light and is therefore the symbol for spiritual abilities and energy. Egyptian texts that describe the Eye of Ra, portray it in terms of “eating” or absorbing spiritual “food” through the various senses. The senses are ordered according to their importance and how much energy must be “eaten” for an individual to receive a particular sensation or utilize the energy. In this scheme, all sensory data input is considered “food” on the spiritual level. In fact, the amount of spiritual energy derived from this metaphysical feasting is precisely expressed, and the construction of the Eye of Ra follows very definite laws. The parts of the sacred eye are assigned fractional values of the total spiritual nutrition available to us, which is 1 = 64/64 heqat. (The following sensory input channels total 63/64. According to legend, the missing 1/64th is the magical and infinite yet hidden energy supplied by Thoth.) The basic measure of sensory eating is called the “ro” and is equal to one “mouthful.” 320 ro = 1 heqat or one “handful” of food from the sun. The energy intake is assigned as follows: 1/64 heqat = Energy of Touch (physical sensation symbolized by a stalk planted in the ground supporting the eye at the center); 1/32 heqat = Energy of Taste (symbolized by the curly grain or wheat sprout from comes from the planted stalk); 1/16 heqat = Energy of Hearing (symbolized by the left part of eye that points to ear, which absorbs vibration); 1/8 heqat = Energy of Thought (symbolized by the eyebrow that expresses thought and reacts to it); 1/4 heqat = Energy of Sight (symbolized by the pupil of eye that absorbs light images or crystallized thoughtforms). However, the most energy absorption available to the human is assigned to the nose. 1/2 heqat = Energy of Smell (symbolized by the right part of eye that points toward the nose). Smell, then, represents the subtlest sense of odor and intuition, which was the soul-centered “Intelligence of the Heart” to the Egyptians. Without this higher nourishment, our spirit starves, becomes weak, and eventually dies.Oils have been used throughout history to evoke altered states of consciousness and initiate individuals into certain spiritual traditions. To “anoit” (from the Latin inunctus – “to smear with oil) is to make a person sacred, to set them apart and dedicate them to serve a higher spiritual purpose. In fact, the Bible refers to the use of anoiting oils over 150 times, and the Hebrew form of “messiah” and the Greek form of Christ literally mean “anointed.”Our modern science is only now beginning to investigate the incredible healing energy found in essential oils. Clinical research shows, for instance, that frankincense oil contains very high immune stimulating properties. The effectiveness of essential oils cannot be fully understood without some discussion of frequency. Frequency is the measurable rate of electrical energy flow that is constant between any two points. Everything has a frequency. Dr. Robert O. Becker in his book The Body Electric establishes that the human body has an electrical frequency and that much about a person’s health can be determined by it’s frequency. In 1992, Bruce Tainio of Tainio Technology, an independent division of Eastern State University in Cheny, Washington, built the first frequency monitor in the world. Tainio has determined that the average frequency of the human body during the daytime is 62-68 Hz. (A healthy body frequency is in the range of 62-72 Hz.) When the frequency drops, the immune system is compromised. If the frequency drops to 58 Hz, cold and flu symptoms appear, at 55 Hz, diseases like Candida take hold, at 52 Hz, Epstein Bar and at 42 Hz, Cancer.According to Dr. Royal R. Rife, every disease has a frequency. He found that certain frequencies can prevent development of disease and that others would destroy disease. Substances with higher frequency will destroy diseases of a lower frequency. The study of frequencies raises important questions concerning the frequencies of substances we eat, breath and absorb. Many pollutants lower healthy frequency. Processed/canned foods have a frequency of zero. Fresh produce has up to 15 Hz, dry herbs from 12 to 22 Hz, and fresh herbs from 20 to 27 Hz. Essential oils start at 52 Hz and go as high as 320 Hz, which is the frequency of Turkish rose oil. Clinical research shows that essential oils have the highest frequency of any natural substance known to man, creating an environment in which disease, bacteria, virus, fungus, etc., cannot survive.The penetrating characteristic of essential oils greatly enhances their ability to be effective. Essential oils will penetrate into the body when applied to the skin. An essential oil placed on the foot will be distributed to every cell in the body in 21 minutes. They will even penetrate a finger or toe nail to treat fungus underneath. The oils may be sniffed from cupped hands or diffused to elicit higher vibrations or states of consciousness during meditation. They may also be applied topically on the chakra points, neck, face, wrists, ankles, back, behind the ears, on the reflexology points on the bottom of the feet, or added to bath water, or worn as a perfume or cologne to raise the level of your personal environment.ref: http://www.crucible.org/oils_history.htm

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And now that we have a framework of the history of extracting essential oils, lets talk extraction methods commonly used to create these precious essences.

Distillation of essential oils

We owe a great debt to the Arabian alchemist (and physician) Ibn Sina – also known as Avicenna, who lived 980 – 1037 AD, since he was the first one to perfect steam distillation – and his process was so good that it stayed unchanged for a couple of hundred years.

Distillation of essential oils

Distillation converts the volatile liquid (the essential oils) into a vapor and then condenses the vapor back into a liquid – it is the most popular, and cost effective method in use today in producing essential oils.

The downside of distillation is the fact that heat is used in this extraction method, which makes it totally unacceptable for use on very fragile material, or where the oils are extracted with great difficulty.

When this method of extraction is applied, great care has to be taken with the temperature and length of exposure of the heat to prevent damage to the oils.

For more information please click the appropriate hyperlink Distillation of essential oils avicenna steam distillation

Ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/distillation.htm

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Water distillation in the extraction of essential oils

In the manufacture of essential oils using the method of water distillation, the botanic material is completely immersed in water and the still is brought to the boil. This method protects the oils so extracted to a certain degree since the surrounding water acts as a barrier to prevent it from overheating.

water distillation extraction of essential oils

When the condensed material cools down, the water and essential oil is separated and the oil decanted to be used as essential oil.

The water that is so separated in this process is also used and is marketed as “floral waters” (also called hydrosol orsweet water) – such as rosewater, lavender water and orange water.

Water distillation can be done at reduced pressure (under vacuum) to reduce the temperature to less than 100 degrees, which is beneficial in protecting the botanical material, as well as the essential oils.

Neroli oil, which is sensitive to heat, can therefore be successfully extracted using this method.

If extended exposure to hot water is not indicated for a particular plant – such as lavender, it is best to find an extraction method better suited. Any botanical material that contains high amounts of esters do not take well to this extraction method, since the extended exposure to hot water will start to break down the esters to the resultant alcohols and carboxylic acids.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/water-distillation.htm

Steam distillation of essential oil manufacture.

When steam distillation is used in the manufacture and extraction of essential oils, the botanical material is placed in a still and steam is forced over the material.

steam distrillation of essential oil

The hot steam helps to release the aromatic molecules from the plant material since the steam forces open the pockets in which the oils are kept in the plant material. The molecules of these volatile oils then escape from the plant material and evaporate into the steam.

The temperature of the steam needs to be carefully controlled – just enough to force the plant material to let go of the essential oil, yet not too hot as to burn the plant material or the essential oil.

The steam which then contains the essential oil, is passed through a cooling system to condense the steam, which forms a liquid from which the essential oil and water is then separated.

The steam is produced at greater pressure than the atmosphere and therefore boils at above 100 degrees Celsius which facilitates the removal of the essential oil from the plant material at a faster rate and in so doing prevents damage to the oil.

Some oils, like Lavender is heat sensitive (thermolabile) and with this extraction method, the oil is not damaged and ingredients like linalyl acetate will not decompose to linalool and acetic acid.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/steam-distillation.htm

Hydro diffusion in essential oil manufacture

When essential oils are extracted using hydro diffusion it is a type of steam distillation, and only varies in the actual way in which the steam is introduced into the still. With hydro diffusion the steam is fed in from the top onto the botanical material instead of from the bottom as in normal steam distillation.

hydro,diffusion

The condensation of the oil containing steam mixture occurs below the area in which the botanical material is held in place by a grill. The main advantage of this method is that less steam is used, shorter processing time and a higher oil yield.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/hydro-diffusion.htm

Cohobation in essential oil extraction

When rose oil is extracted during water distillation, the one main constituent – phenyl ethyl alcohol – dissolves into the water of the distillation still and does not form part of the essential oil that is so extracted.

cohobation rose otto

The oil so extracted is therefore not whole, and is deficient in this rose-smelling ingredient – and in order to produce a “complete” oil, the phenyl ethyl alcohol needs to be distilled from the water in which it dissolved and added back to the “incomplete oil”.

When this phenyl ethyl alcohol is so distilled, it is added back to the original distillate, in the correct proportion, to form a complete and whole rose oil, and is then called Rose Otto.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/cohobation.htm

Rectification in extraction of essential oils

When an essential oil contains any impurities, it can be purified by re-distillation – either in steam or in a vacuum, and this purification by re-distillation is referred to as rectification.

Rectification in extraction of essential oils

An example of this is eucalyptus oil that is marketed as “double-distilled”. This is not the same as chemical or heat refining and is used to produce oil of standard quality.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/rectification.htm

Combination water and steam distillation

This process is basically a marriage between normal water distillation and that of steam distillation.

The botanical material is immersed in water in a still, which has a heat source, plus live steam is fed into the water and botanical material mixture.

combination distilling Water and steam distillation of essential oils

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/water-steam-distillation.htm

Fractional distillation

When people talk about fractional distillation, it refers to a normal distillation process, but instead of the essential oil being collected continuously, it is collected in batches (the fractions that are referred to) and material normally so extracted isYlang-Ylang.

fractional,distillation

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/fractional-distillation.htm

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Expression extraction in essential oil manufacture

When a “cold pressed” method is referred to in the manufacture of carrier oil and essential oils, it basically refers to the expression method, since no heat is involved in this method.

essential oil manufacture

Most nut and seed oils are also extracted using a “cold pressed” method but here oil is forced from the material under high mechanical pressure and generally produces a good quality oil, but some manufacturers do impair this good quality by excessively refining the oil after extraction by means of chemicals or high heat.

But when we return to look at the expression method of extraction in the manufacture of essential oils, we find that most citrus essential oils are extracted this way and that three different ways are used to accomplish it:

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/expression.htm

Sponge extraction process

Most citrus essences are extracted by means of expression, and in the past were done by hand where the fruit pulp was removed, with the rind and pith then soaked in warm water to make the rind more pliable, since the pith of the fruit absorbed the water.

sponge,extraction

After the fruit has absorbed the water and become more elastic, it was inverted which helped to rupture the oil cells and a sponge placed next to the rind. It was then squeezed to release the volatile oil, which was then collected directly into the sponge.

As soon as the sponge became saturated with oil, it was squeezed and the essential oil collected in a vessel and then decanted.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/sponge-expression.htm

Écuelle à piquer extraction process

This form of expression extraction is used mainly to obtain citrus essential oils, and is a little less labor intensive than that of the sponge method.

ecuelle a piquer essential oil extraction punturing oil cells in peel

This more modern way of essential oil extraction is referred to as the écuelle à piquer process (direct translation = basin, to prick/stick/prod) where the fruit is placed in a device and rotated with spikes on the side puncturing the oil cells in the skin of the fruit.

This cause the oil cells to rupture and the essential oil, and other material such as pigment, to run down to the center of the device, which contains a collection area.

The liquid is thereafter separated and the oil is removed from the water-based parts of the mixture and decanted.

http://www.essentialoils.co.za/ecuelle-a-piquer.htm

Machine abrasion to produce essential oil

This method of expression extraction is very much like the écuelle à piquer method, and is mostly used in the manufacture of citrus essential oils.

machine abrasion extraction

With machine abrasion a machine strips off the outer peel, which is then removed by running water and is then fed into a centrifugal separator.

The centrifugal separation is done extremely fast but it should be noted that due to the fact that the essential oil is combined with other cell content for some time, some alteration could occur due to enzymatic action.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/machine-abrasion.htm

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

SOLVENT EXTRACTION

Solvent extraction and essential oil

When we talk about the broad term of solvent extraction, it does not only refer to chemical solvents like hexane, but also to other forms – such as solid oil and fat as well as carbon dioxide.

solvent extraction

Solvent extraction is particularly suitable for botanical material that has a very low yield of essential oil, or where it is made up of mostly resinous components and as such delivers a far finer fragrance than that of distillation.

During this type of extraction, non-volatile components of the botanical material – such as waxes and pigments are also extracted and in some cases this is then removed during another process.

Under solvent extraction we list the following methods:

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/solvent-extraction.htm

Maceration extraction method

With the maceration extraction method, the flowers are soaked in hot oil to have their cell membranes ruptured and the hot oil then absorbs the essence. The oil is then cleared of the botanical and decanted.

maceration oils Maceration extraction essential oil infused oil

This is very much the same technique used in solvent extractions, where solvents are used instead of the hot oil as used in maceration.

http://www.essentialoils.co.za/maceration.htm

Enfleurage extraction of essential oils

Enfleurage could be compared to certain aspects employed in maceration, but is done in a slightly different way.

enfleurage extraction essential oils chassis en verre pour l'enfleurage

Glass plates in a frame (called a chassis) are covered with highly purified and odorless vegetable or animal fat and the petals of the botanical matter that are being extracted are spread across it and pressed in. The flowers are normally freshly picked before so encased in their fatty bed.

Time left in the fat on the chassis Enfleurage extraction of essential oils

The petals remain in this greasy compound for a few days or a couple of weeks (depending on the botanic material used) to allow the essence to disperse into the compound, where the then depleted petals are removed and replaced with a fresh harvest of petals.

This process is repeated until the greasy mix is saturated with the essence, and needs to be repeated a couple of times until saturation is achieved.

Enfleurage extraction of essential oils

When the mix has reached saturation point the flowers are removed and the enfleurage pomade – the fat and fragrant oil – then washed with alcohol to separate the extract from the remaining fat, which is then used to make soap.

As soon as the alcohol evaporates from the mixture you are left with the essential oil. This is a very labor-intensive way of extraction, and needless to say a very costly way to obtain essential oil and is nowadays only sometimes used to extract essential oil from tuberoses and jasmine.

http://www.essentialoils.co.za/enfleurage.htm

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Solvent extraction in essential oil manufacture

Essential oils can be extracted by using solvents such as petroleum ether, methanol, ethanol or hexane and is often used on fragile material such as jasminehyacinthnarcissus and tuberose, which would not be able to handle the heat of steam distillation.

hydrocarbon solvent extraction essential oil

A solvent extracted essential oil is very concentrated and is very close to the natural fragrance of the material used.

Although solvent extraction is used extensively, some people do not believe that it should be used for aromatherapy oils since a residue of solvent could be present in the finished product.

Some reports site a solvent residue of 6 – 20% still present in the finished extraction, but this was normally the case when benzene was the standard solvent used.

With hexane (a hydrocarbon) as the solvent material the solvent residue goes down to about 10 ppm (parts per million) and this is a extremely low concentration of solvent in the resultant product.

As mentioned, benzene is no longer used in the extraction method, since it is regarded as carcinogenic (cancer forming).

After the plant material has been treated with the solvent, it produces a waxy aromatic compound referred to as a “concrete“.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/solvent.htm

Hypercritical Carbon Dioxide gas
CO2 extraction of essential oils

The use of hypercritical carbon dioxide extraction is a fairly new way to extract essential oils from botanical material and although a bit on the expensive side, does yield good quality oils.

CO2 extraction essential oils hypercritical carbon dioxide gas

Carbon dioxide becomes hypercritical at 33 degrees Celsius, which is a state in which it is not really gas or liquid, but has qualities of both, and is an excellent solvent to use in the extraction of essential oils since the low temperature required and the fact that the process is near to instantaneous.

The carbon dioxide is furthermore inert and therefore does not chemically interact with the essence that is being extracted. To remove the carbon dioxide solvent, you simply need to remove the pressure under which it is kept.

This process has to take place in a closed chamber for the hypercritical pressure required for carbon dioxide is 200 atmospheres – that is 200 times the pressure of normal atmosphere.

To achieve this type of pressure some heavy-duty stainless steel equipment is required, and this is where high capital investment is required for this extraction method.

ref: http://www.essentialoils.co.za/hypercritical-c02-carbon-dioxide.htm

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Why is the art of perfume making important? Safety, purity of medications as well as spiritual use.

Sula Benet (1903 – 1982), also known as Sara Benetowa, was a Polish anthropologist of the 20th century who studied Polish and Judaic customs and traditions.

Contents

[hide]

[edit]Biography

Born in Poland, Benet was fascinated with peasant culture of Poland since her early youth. This interest eventually led her to enroll as a student of literature and philosophy in the Faculty of Humanities in the University of Warsaw but graduated with a degree in anthropology. Upon receiving her degree in 1935, she attended graduate school at Columbia University, where she received her doctorate in 1944.

[edit]Works

  • Festive recipes and festival menus 1957
  • Song, Dance, and Customs of Peasant Poland[when?]
  • Riddles of many lands Carl Withers, Sula Benet – 1956
  • Early Diffusion and Folk Uses of Hemp. 1967
  • Abkhasians: the long-living people of the Caucasus 1974
  • How to live to be 100: the life-style of the people of the Caucasus 1976

[edit]Early Diffusion and Folk Uses of Hemp. 1967

Benet’s writings have gained modern notability[citation needed] for her interpretations of the herb appearing in Hebrew text as kaneh-bosim (Hebrew קְנֵה-בֹשֶׂם) five times in the Hebrew Bible and how it relates to the religious use of cannabisKaneh-bosm is mentioned twice as part of the holy anointing oil used in the temple, and has been interpreted traditionally as calamus (an herb that is known in North American shamanism and in vedic atharva and has been discovered in modern times to contain a molecule known as Asarone that is a precursor of trimethoxyamphetamine, a psychedelic). Through comparative etymology, analysis of ancient texts (including pre-Hebrew Semitic language), and pharmacological consistencies she contends that the word kaneh-bosm actually refers to cannabis and was used in ancient Jewish religious rites, as a medicine and ritual sacrament. Benet’s work claims that cannabis use has a long culturally important history, and that the criminalization and demonization of cannabis is a recent invention (an occurrence of the previous century compared to Torah: dating back at least 3,000 years). While Benet’s conclusion regarding the psychoactive use of cannabis are not generally recognized among Jewishscholars, there is general agreement that hemp (“Kaneh”) is used in talmudic sources to refer to hemp fibers, as hemp was a vital commodity before linen replaced it.[1] Benet claims that traditional identifications of kaneh bosom do not account for hemp shirts being produced from industrial hemp, which Benet claims is “Kaneh” in Hebrew.[2] Benet claims that this kaneh differs from the “fragrant” or “sweet” hemp called especially kaneh bosm, because the latter produces much more of aromatic and psychotropic substances like CBD and THC.[2] [3]

Exodus records Moses receiving the instructions for making and distributing the holy anointing oil, as follows:

Then the LORD said to Moses, “Take the following fine spices: 500 shekels of liquid myrrh, half as much of fragrant cinnamon, 250 shekels of kaneh bosm, 500 shekels of cassia – all according to the sanctuary shekel–and a hind of olive oil. Make these into a sacred anointing oil” (Exodus 30: 22-33)

The Hebrew term kaneh (קָנֶה) is the standard Hebrew word for “cane” or “reed,” occurring 62 times in the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible [4] It usually occurs without the adjective “sweet,” and is translated “reed,” though twice as calamus (Song of Songs 4:14 and Ezekiel 27:19 KJV). It occurs with the adjective “sweet” in three places (Exodus 30:22-33, Isaiah 43:24, Jeremiah 6:20), where kaneh bosm is typically translated as “calamus,” “sweet cane” or “fragrant cane” in English versions.

Sula Benet’s theory is not supported by academic or popular dictionaries of plants in the Hebrew Bible, which typically identify the plant as acorus calamus or cymbopogon citratus.[5]

[edit]See also

[edit]References

  1. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica. Volume 8. p. 323.
  2. a b Sula Benet, Early Diffusion and Folk Uses of Hemp. (Reprinted in Cannabis and Culture, Vera Rubin, Ed. pg.41 The Hague: Mouton, 1975.) Transcribed and available online by inactive Anchorage NORML chapter, at [1]
  3. ^ Sara Benetowa (Sula Benet), Tracing One Word Through Different Languages. (1936). (Reprinted in The Book of Grass, 1967.)
  4. ^ Hebrew Concordance
  5. ^ Lytton J. Musselman Figs , dates, laurel, and myrrh: plants of the Bible and the Quran p73

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Exodus 30:25
Complete Jewish Bible (CJB)
25 and make them into a holy anointing oil; blend it and perfume it as would an expert perfume-maker; it will be a holy anointing oil.

other translations:
New International Version (©1984)
Make these into a sacred anointing oil, a fragrant blend, the work of a perfumer. It will be the sacred anointing oil.
New Living Translation (©2007)
Like a skilled incense maker, blend these ingredients to make a holy anointing oil.

English Standard Version (©2001)
And you shall make of these a sacred anointing oil blended as by the perfumer; it shall be a holy anointing oil.

New American Standard Bible (©1995)
“You shall make of these a holy anointing oil, a perfume mixture, the work of a perfumer; it shall be a holy anointing oil.

King James Bible (Cambridge Ed.)
And thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be an holy anointing oil.

GOD’S WORD® Translation (©1995)
Have a perfumer make these into a holy oil, a fragrant mixture, used only for anointing. This will be the holy oil used for anointing.

King James 2000 Bible (©2003)
And you shall make it an oil of holy anointing, an ointment compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

American King James Version
And you shall make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the are of the apothecary: it shall be an holy anointing oil.

American Standard Version
And thou shalt make it a holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

Douay-Rheims Bible
And thou shalt make the holy oil of unction, an ointment compounded after the art of the perfumer,

Darby Bible Translation
and make of it an oil of holy ointment, a perfume of perfumery after the work of the perfumer: it shall be the holy anointing oil.

English Revised Version
and thou shalt make it an holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be an holy anointing oil.

Webster’s Bible Translation
And thou shalt make it an oil of holy ointment, an ointment compound after the art of the apothecary: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

World English Bible
You shall make it a holy anointing oil, a perfume compounded after the art of the perfumer: it shall be a holy anointing oil.

Young’s Literal Translation
and thou hast made it a holy anointing oil, a compound mixture, work of a compounder; it is a holy anointing oil.
http://bible.cc/exodus/30-25.htm

Naphtha is not good for you!

watch for updates on this link.

Naphtha Solvent is NOT GOOD FOR YOU!

Please do not confuse naphtha poisoning for added potency when using it as a solvent to make Phoenix Tears!

June 20, 2012 status message from facebook.com

A friend of mine was donated some phoenix tears oil from an understandably unnamed source. She could not take it to a lab for testing and was afraid to use it. She put a sample into my hands. So, on Monday I tested it. I have a high tolerance and was in a lot of pain, so I took a larger than a grain of rice dab. From the moment it touched my tongue, it burned. It was naphtha! I knew it, but it was far too late. Soon, My nervous system was soon on fire. Then the crazy symptoms came. I got to a point of pain and insanity that was torture for myself and all around me. The crazy lasted for days… the pain is still there. If you have mental health issues on any level, avoid naphtha extracted products like the plague! Its not worth it. It causes cancer too.

also available on youtube here:  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yOut8TuqB18

_______________________________________________________________________________________

naphtha is so toxic, the Department of Defense (DoD) uses is as a template for how they classify “dangerous” chemicals…. you’re using naphtha to make your Rick Simpson – Phoenix Tears therapy? your’re inviting so much attention from the government it is stupid. They track each and every purchase of that substance btw.

_________________________________________________________________________________________

http://www.collectioncare.org/MSDS/naphthamsds.pdf

Material Safety Data Sheet
Naphtha
SECTION 1. PRODUCT AND COMPANY IDENTIFICATION
Product name : Naphtha
Synonyms : Light Naphtha, Japan Open Spec Bonded Naphtha, SNG Naphtha, Light Cat
Naphtha, Sweet Virgin Naphtha (SVN), Debutanized Naphtha, Atmospheric
Naphtha (DAN), HCU Light Naphtha, Light CR Gasoline, Full Range Cracked
Naphtha, Full Range Hydrocracked Naphtha, Full Range Reformed Naphtha,
Light Chemical Treated Naphtha, Light Cracked Naphtha, Light Hydrocracked
Naphtha, Light Hydrotreated Naphtha, Aviation Alkylate Naphtha, 888100004450
MSDS Number : 888100004450 Version : 2.12
Product Use Description : Fuel Component, Refinery Intermediate Stream
Company : For: Tesoro Refining & Marketing Co.
19100 Ridgewood Parkway, San Antonio, TX 78259
Tesoro Call Center : (877) 783-7676 Chemtrec
(Emergency Contact)
: (800) 424-9300
SECTION 2. HAZARDS IDENTIFICATION
Emergency Overview
Regulatory status : This material is considered hazardous by the Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) Hazard Communication Standard (29 CFR 1910.1200).
Signal Word : DANGER
Hazard Summary : Extremely flammable. Irritating to eyes and respiratory system. Affects central
nervous system. Harmful or fatal if swallowed. Aspiration Hazard.
Potential Health Effects
Eyes : High vapor concentration or contact may cause irritation and discomfort.
Skin : Brief contact may cause slight irritation. Skin irritation leading to dermatitis may
occur upon prolonged or repeated contact. Can be absorbed through skin.
Ingestion : Aspiration hazard if liquid is inhaled into lungs, particularly from vomiting after
ingestion. Aspiration may result in chemical pneumonia, severe lung damage,
respiratory failure and even death.
Inhalation : Vapors or mists from this material can irritate the nose, throat, and lungs, and
can cause signs and symptoms of central nervous system depression,
depending on the concentration and duration of exposure. Inhalation of high
concentrations may cause central nervous system depression such as dizziness,
Specific Hazard
Reactivity
Health
NFPA: Flammability
1 0
3
FLAMMABILITY
PHYSICAL
HEALTH
3
0
1
HMIS III:
0 = Insignificant, 1 = Slight, 2 = Moderate,
3 = High, 4 = ExtremeMATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET NAPHTHA Page 2 of 14
2 / 14
drowsiness, headache, and similar narcotic symptoms, but no long-term effects.
Chronic Exposure : Long-term exposure may cause effects to specific organs, such as to the liver,
kidneys, blood, nervous system, and skin. Contains benzene, which can cause
blood disease, including anemia and leukemia.
Target Organs : Skin, Central nervous system, Liver, Kidney, Blood
SECTION 3. COMPOSITION/INFORMATION ON INGREDIENTS
Component CAS-No. Weight %
Naphtha; Low boiling point naphtha 8030-30-6 100%
N-hexane 110-54-3 25 – 35%
Xylene 1330-20-7 25 – 35%
Toluene 108-88-3 15 – 20%
Cyclohexane 110-82-7 15 – 20%
Pentane 109-66-0 15 – 20%
Heptane [and isomers] 142-82-5 12.5 – 15%
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 5 – 7%
Benzene 71-43-2 3 – 5%
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 2 – 3%
Sulfur 7704-34-9 0 – 1.5%
SECTION 4. FIRST AID MEASURES
General advice : Remove from exposure, lie down. In the case of accident or if you feel unwell,
seek medical advice immediately (show the label where possible). When
symptoms persist or in all cases of doubt, seek medical advice. Never give
anything by mouth to an unconscious person. Take off all contaminated clothing
immediately and thoroughly wash material from skin.
Inhalation : If inhaled, remove to fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial respiration. If
breathing is difficult, give oxygen. Seek medical attention immediately.
Skin contact : In case of contact, immediately flush skin with plenty of water. Take off
contaminated clothing and shoes immediately. Wash contaminated clothing
before re-use. Contaminated leather, particularly footwear, must be discarded.
Note that contaminated clothing may be a fire hazard. Seek medical advice if
symptoms persist or develop.
Eye contact : Remove contact lenses. In the case of contact with eyes, rinse immediately with
plenty of water and seek medical advice.
Ingestion : If swallowed Do NOT induce vomiting. Never give anything by mouth to an
unconscious person. Seek medical attention immediately. MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET NAPHTHA Page 3 of 14
3 / 14
Notes to physician : Symptoms: Dizziness, Discomfort, Headache, Nausea, Kidney disorders, Liver
disorders.
SECTION 5. FIRE-FIGHTING MEASURES
Form : Liquid
Flash point -typical : -21.7 °C (-7.1 °F)
Auto Ignition temperature : 225 °C (437 °F)
Lower explosive limit : 1.2 %(V)
Upper explosive limit : 6.9 % (V)
Suitable extinguishing media : Use water spray, alcohol-resistant foam, dry chemical or carbon dioxide. Do not
use a solid water stream as it may scatter and spread fire.
Specific hazards during fire
fighting
: SMALL FIRES: Any extinguisher suitable for Class B fires, dry chemical, CO2,
water spray, fire fighting foam, or Halon.
LARGE FIRES: Water spray, fog or fire fighting foam. Water may be ineffective for
fighting the fire, but may be used to cool fire-exposed containers.
Special protective equipment
for fire-fighters
: Fire fighters should wear positive pressure self-contained breathing apparatus
(SCBA) and full turnout gear. Firefighters’ protective clothing will provide limited
protection.
Further information : Isolate area around container involved in fire. Cool tanks, shells, and containers
exposed to fire and excessive heat with water. For massive fires the use of
unmanned hose holders or monitor nozzles may be advantageous to further
minimize personnel exposure. Major fires may require withdrawal, allowing the
tank to burn. Large storage tank fires typically require specially trained personnel
and equipment to extinguish the fire, often including the need for properly applied
fire fighting foam. Exposure to decomposition products may be a hazard to health.
Use extinguishing measures that are appropriate to local circumstances and the
surrounding environment. Use water spray to cool unopened containers. Fire
residues and contaminated fire extinguishing water must be disposed of in
accordance with local regulations.
SECTION 6. ACCIDENTAL RELEASE MEASURES
Personal precautions : Evacuate personnel to safe areas. Ventilate the area. Remove all sources of
ignition. Response and clean-up crews must be properly trained and must utilize
proper protective equipment (see Section 8).
Environmental precautions : Should not be released into the environment. Avoid subsoil penetration. If the
product contaminates rivers and lakes or drains, inform respective authorities.
Methods for cleaning up : Contain and collect spillage with non-combustible absorbent material, (e.g. sand,
earth, diatomaceous earth, vermiculite) and place in container for disposal
according to local / national regulations.
SECTION 7. HANDLING AND STORAGE
Handling : Keep away from fire, sparks and heated surfaces. No smoking near areas where
material is stored or handled. The product should only be stored and handled in MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET NAPHTHA Page 4 of 14
4 / 14
areas with intrinsically safe electrical classification.
Advice on protection against
fire and explosion
: Hydrocarbon liquids including this product can act as a non-conductive flammable
liquid (or static accumulators), and may form ignitable vapor-air mixtures in storage
tanks or other containers. Precautions to prevent static-initated fire or explosion
during transfer, storage or handling, include but are not limited to these examples:
(1) Ground and bond containers during product transfers. Grounding and
bonding may not be adequate protection to prevent ignition or explosion of
hydrocarbon liquids and vapors that are static accumulators.
(2) Special slow load procedures for “switch loading” must be followed to
avoid the static ignition hazard that can exist when higher flash point
material (such as fuel oil or diesel) is loaded into tanks previously
containing low flash point products (such gasoline or naphtha).
(3) Storage tank level floats must be effectively bonded.
For more information on precautions to prevent static-initated fire or explosion, see
NFPA 77, Recommended Practice on Static Electricity (2007), and API
Recommended Practice 2003, Protection Against Ignitions Arising Out of Static,
Lightning, and Stray Currents (2008).
Dust explosion class : Not applicable
Requirements for storage
areas and containers
: Keep away from flame, sparks, excessive temperatures and open flame. Use
approved containers. Keep containers closed and clearly labeled. Empty or
partially full product containers or vessels may contain explosive vapors. Do not
pressurize, cut, heat, weld or expose containers to sources of ignition. Store in a
well-ventilated area. The storage area should comply with NFPA 30 “Flammable
and Combustible Liquid Code”. The cleaning of tanks previously containing this
product should follow API Recommended Practice (RP) 2013 “Cleaning Mobile
Tanks In Flammable and Combustible Liquid Service” and API RP 2015 “Cleaning
Petroleum Storage Tanks”.
Advice on common storage : Keep away from food, drink and animal feed. Incompatible with oxidizing agents.
Incompatible with acids.
Other data : No decomposition if stored and applied as directed.
SECTION 8. EXPOSURE CONTROLS / PERSONAL PROTECTION
Exposure Guidelines
List Components CAS-No. Type: Value
OSHA Benzene – 29 CFR 1910.1028 71-43-2 TWA 1 ppm
71-43-2 STEL 5 ppm
71-43-2 OSHA_AL 0.5 ppm
OSHA Z1 Naphtha; Low boiling point naphtha 8030-30-6 PEL 100 ppm 400 mg/m3
Xylene 1330-20-7 PEL 100 ppm 435 mg/m3
N-hexane 110-54-3 PEL 500 ppm 1,800 mg/m3
Cyclohexane 110-82-7 PEL 300 ppm 1,050 mg/m3
Heptane [and isomers] 142-82-5 PEL 500 ppm 2,000 mg/m3
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 PEL 100 ppm 435 mg/m3
ACGIH Naphtha; Low boiling point naphtha 8030-30-6 TWA 400 ppm MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET NAPHTHA Page 5 of 14
5 / 14
Xylene 1330-20-7 TWA 100 ppm
1330-20-7 STEL 150 ppm
N-hexane 110-54-3 TWA 50 ppm
Toluene 108-88-3 TWA 50 ppm
Cyclohexane 110-82-7 TWA 100 ppm
Pentane 109-66-0 TWA 600 ppm
Heptane [and isomers] 142-82-5 TWA 400 ppm
142-82-5 STEL 500 ppm
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 TWA 100 ppm
100-41-4 STEL 125 ppm
Benzene 71-43-2 TWA 0.5 ppm
71-43-2 STEL 2.5 ppm
Engineering measures : Use adequate ventilation to keep gas and vapor concentrations of this product
below occupational exposure and flammability limits, particularly in confined
spaces. Use only intrinsically safe electrical equipment approved for use in
classified areas.
Eye protection : Safety glasses or goggles are recommended where there is a possibility of
splashing or spraying. Ensure that eyewash stations and safety showers are close
to the workstation location.
Hand protection : Gloves constructed of nitrile or neoprene are recommended. Consult manufacturer
specifications for further information.
Skin and body protection : If needed to prevent skin contact, chemical protective clothing such as of DuPont
TyChem®, Saranex or equivalent recommended based on degree of exposure.
The resistance of specific material may vary from product to product as well as
with degree of exposure.
Respiratory protection : A NIOSH/ MSHA-approved air-purifying respirator with organic vapor cartridges or
canister may be permissible under certain circumstances where airborne
concentrations are or may be expected to exceed exposure limits or for odor or
irritation. Protection provided by air-purifying respirators is limited. Refer to OSHA
29 CFR 1910.134, ANSI Z88.2-1992, NIOSH Respirator Decision Logic, and the
manufacturer for additional guidance on respiratory protection selection. Use a
NIOSH/ MSHA-approved positive-pressure supplied-air respirator if there is a
potential for uncontrolled release, exposure levels are not known, in oxygendeficient atmospheres, or any other circumstance where an air-purifying respirator
may not provide adequate protection.
Work / Hygiene practices : Emergency eye wash capability should be available in the near proximity to
operations presenting a potential splash exposure. Use good personal hygiene
practices. Avoid repeated and/or prolonged skin exposure. Wash hands before
eating, drinking, smoking, or using toilet facilities. Do not use as a cleaning solvent
on the skin. Do not use solvents or harsh abrasive skin cleaners for washing this
product from exposed skin areas. Waterless hand cleaners are effective.
Promptly remove contaminated clothing and launder before reuse. Use care when
laundering to prevent the formation of flammable vapors which could ignite via
washer or dryer. Consider the need to discard contaminated leather shoes and
gloves. MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET NAPHTHA Page 6 of 14
6 / 14
SECTION 9. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Form : Liquid
Appearance : Colorless to light yellow
Odor : Characteristic hydrocarbon-like
Flash point – typical : -21.7 °C (-7.1 °F)
Auto Ignition temperature : 225 °C (437 °F)
Thermal decomposition : Heating can release hazardous gases, No decomposition if stored and applied as
directed.
Lower explosive limit : 1.2 % (V)
Upper explosive limit : 6.9 % (V)
pH : Not applicable
Specific gravity : 0.77 (H20=1)
Boiling point : 26.7 – 148.9 °C(80.1 – 300.0 °F)
Vapor Pressure : 758 – 896 hPa
at 20 °C (68 °F)
Vapor Density (Air = 1) : 3.5
Water solubility : Negligible
Viscosity, kinematic : Not determined
Percent Volatiles : 100 %
Work / Hygiene practices Emergency eye wash capability should be available in the near proximity to
operations presenting a potential splash exposure. Use good personal hygiene
practices. Avoid repeated and/or prolonged skin exposure. Wash hands before
eating, drinking, smoking, or using toilet facilities. Do not use as a cleaning
solvent on the skin. Do not use solvents or harsh abrasive skin cleaners for
washing this product from exposed skin areas. Waterless hand cleaners are
effective. Promptly remove contaminated clothing and launder before reuse. Use
care when laundering to prevent the formation of flammable vapors which could
ignite via washer or dryer. Consider the need to discard contaminated leather
shoes and gloves.
SECTION 10. STABILITY AND REACTIVITY
Conditions to avoid : Avoid high temperatures, open flames, sparks, welding, smoking and other
ignition sources.
Materials to avoid : Strong acids and strong bases. Oxidizing agents.
Hazardous decomposition
products
: Carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and noncombusted hydrocarbons (smoke).
Thermal decomposition : Heating can release hazardous gases. No decomposition if stored and applied as
directed.
Hazardous reactions : Vapors may form explosive mixture with air. Hazardous polymerization does not
occur. Note: Stable under recommended storage conditions. MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET NAPHTHA Page 7 of 14
7 / 14
SECTION 11. TOXICOLOGICAL INFORMATION
Carcinogenicity
NTP : Benzene (CAS-No.: 71-43-2)
IARC : Ethylbenzene (CAS-No.: 100-41-4)
Benzene (CAS-No.: 71-43-2)
OSHA : Benzene (CAS-No.: 71-43-2)
CA Prop 65 : WARNING! This product contains a chemical known to the State of California to
cause cancer.
Ethylbenzene (CAS-No.: 100-41-4)
Benzene (CAS-No.: 71-43-2)
: WARNING! This product contains a chemical known to the State of California to
cause birth defects or other reproductive harm.
Toluene (CAS-No.: 108-88-3)
Benzene (CAS-No.: 71-43-2)
Skin irritation : Repeated or prolonged contact with the preparation may cause removal of natural
fat from the skin resulting in desiccation of the skin.
The product may be absorbed through the skin.
Eye irritation : The liquid splashed in the eyes may cause irritation and reversible damage.
Strong lachrymation can make it difficult to escape
Further information : This product contains benzene. Human health studies indicate that prolonged
and/or repeated overexposure to benzene may cause damage to the blood-forming
system (particularly bone marrow), and serious blood disorders such as aplastic
anemia and leukemia. Benzene is listed as a human carcinogen by the NTP, IARC,
OSHA and ACGIH. Acute toxicity of benzene results primarily from depression of
the central nervous system (CNS). Inhalation of concentrations over 50 ppm can
produce headache, lassitude, weariness, dizziness, drowsiness, or excitation.
Exposure to very high levels can result in unconsciousness and death.
Symptoms of overexposure may be headache, dizziness, tiredness, nausea and
vomiting.
Ingestion may cause gastrointestinal disturbances, including irritation, nausea,
vomiting and diarrhea, and central nervous (brain) effects similar to alcohol
intoxication. In severe cases, tremors, convulsions, loss of consciousness, coma,
respiratory arrest and death may occur.
Component:MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET NAPHTHA Page 8 of 14
8 / 14
N-hexane 110-54-3 Acute oral toxicity: LD50 rat
Dose: 25,000 mg/kg
Acute dermal toxicity: LD50 rabbit
Dose: 2,001 mg/kg
Acute inhalation toxicity: LC50 rat
Dose: 171.6 mg/l
Exposure time: 4 h
Skin irritation: Classification: Irritating to skin.
Result: Skin irritation
Eye irritation: Classification: Irritating to eyes.
Result: Mild eye irritation
Teratogenicity: N11.00418960
Xylene 1330-20-7 Acute oral toxicity: LD50 rat
Dose: 2,840 mg/kg
Acute dermal toxicity: LD50 rabbit
Dose: ca. 4,500 mg/kg
Acute inhalation toxicity: LC50 rat
Dose: 6,350 mg/l
Exposure time: 4 h
Skin irritation: Classification: Irritating to skin.
Result: Mild skin irritation
Repeated or prolonged exposure may cause skin irritation and dermatitis, due to
degreasing properties of the product.
Eye irritation: Classification: Irritating to eyes.
Result: Mild eye irritation
Toluene 108-88-3 Acute oral toxicity: LD50 rat
Dose: 636 mg/kg
Acute dermal toxicity: LD50 rabbit
Dose: 12,124 mg/kg
Acute inhalation toxicity: LC50 rat
Dose: 49 mg/l
Exposure time: 4 h
Skin irritation: Classification: Irritating to skin.
Result: Mild skin irritation
Prolonged skin contact may defat the skin and produce dermatitis.
Eye irritation: Classification: Irritating to eyes.
Result: Mild eye irritation
Cyclohexane 110-82-7 Acute dermal toxicity: LD50 rabbit
Dose: 2,001 mg/kg
Acute inhalation toxicity: LC50 rat
Dose: 14 mg/l
Exposure time: 4 h
Skin irritation: Classification: Irritating to skin.
Result: Skin irritation
Eye irritation: Classification: Irritating to eyes.
Result: Mild eye irritation
Pentane 109-66-0 Acute oral toxicity: LD50 rat
Dose: 2,001 mg/kg
Acute inhalation toxicity: LC50 rat MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET NAPHTHA Page 9 of 14
9 / 14
Dose: 364 mg/l
Exposure time: 4 h
Skin irritation: Repeated or prolonged exposure may cause skin irritation and dermatitis,
due to degreasing properties of the product.
Eye irritation: Classification: Irritating to eyes.
Result: Mild eye irritation
Heptane [and isomers] 142-82-5 Acute oral toxicity: LD50 rat
Dose: 15,001 mg/kg
Acute inhalation toxicity: LC50 rat
Dose: 103 g/m3
Exposure time: 4 h
Skin irritation: Classification: Irritating to skin.
Result: Skin irritation
Repeated or prolonged exposure may cause skin irritation and dermatitis, due to
degreasing properties of the product.
Eye irritation: Classification: Irritating to eyes.
Result: Mild eye irritation
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4 Acute oral toxicity: LD50 rat
Dose: 3,500 mg/kg
Acute dermal toxicity: LD50 rabbit
Dose: 15,500 mg/kg
Acute inhalation toxicity: LC50 rat
Dose: 18 mg/l
Exposure time: 4 h
Skin irritation: Classification: Irritating to skin.
Result: Mild skin irritation
Eye irritation: Classification: Irritating to eyes.
Result: Risk of serious damage to eyes.
Benzene 71-43-2 Acute oral toxicity: LD50 rat
Dose: 930 mg/kg
Acute inhalation toxicity: LC50 rat
Dose: 44 mg/l
Exposure time: 4 h
Skin irritation: Classification: Irritating to skin.
Result: Mild skin irritation
Repeated or prolonged exposure may cause skin irritation and dermatitis, due to
degreasing properties of the product.
Eye irritation: Classification: Irritating to eyes.
Result: Risk of serious damage to eyes.
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Acute inhalation toxicity: LC50 rat
Dose: 18 mg/l
Exposure time: 4 h
Skin irritation: Classification: Irritating to skin.
Result: Skin irritation
Eye irritation: Classification: Irritating to eyes.
Result: Eye irritationMATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET NAPHTHA Page 10 of 14
10 / 14
Sulfur 7704-34-9 Acute oral toxicity: LD50 rat
Dose: 5,001 mg/kg
Acute dermal toxicity: LD50 rabbit
Dose: 2,001 mg/kg
Acute inhalation toxicity: LC50 rat
Dose: 9.24 mg/l
Exposure time: 4 h
Eye irritation: Classification: Irritating to eyes.
Result: Mild eye irritation
SECTION 12. ECOLOGICAL INFORMATION
Additional ecological
information
: Keep out of sewers, drainage areas, and waterways. Report spills and releases, as
applicable, under Federal and State regulations.
Component:
N-hexane 110-54-3 Toxicity to fish:
LC50
Species: Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow)
Dose: 2.5 mg/l
Exposure time: 96 h
Acute and prolonged toxicity for aquatic invertebrates:
EC50
Species: Daphnia magna (Water flea)
Dose: 2.1 mg/l
Exposure time: 48 h
Toluene 108-88-3 Toxicity to fish:
LC50
Species: Carassius auratus (goldfish)
Dose: 13 mg/l
Exposure time: 96 h
Acute and prolonged toxicity for aquatic invertebrates:
EC50
Species: Daphnia magna (Water flea)
Dose: 11.5 mg/l
Exposure time: 48 h
Toxicity to algae:
IC50
Species: Selenastrum capricornutum (green algae)
Dose: 12 mg/l
Exposure time: 72 h
Cyclohexane 110-82-7 Acute and prolonged toxicity for aquatic invertebrates:
EC50
Species: Daphnia magna (Water flea)
Dose: 3.78 mg/l
Exposure time: 48 h
Pentane 109-66-0 Acute and prolonged toxicity for aquatic invertebrates:
EC50
Species: Daphnia magna (Water flea)
Dose: 9.74 mg/l
Exposure time: 48 h
Heptane [and isomers] 142-82-5 Toxicity to fish:
LC50
Species: Carassius auratus (goldfish)
Dose: 4 mg/l
Exposure time: 24 h MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET NAPHTHA Page 11 of 14
11 / 14
Acute and prolonged toxicity for aquatic invertebrates:
EC50
Species: Daphnia magna (Water flea)
Dose: 1.5 mg/l
Exposure time: 48 h
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6 Toxicity to fish:
LC50
Species: Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow)
Dose: 7.72 mg/l
Exposure time: 96 h
Acute and prolonged toxicity for aquatic invertebrates:
EC50
Species: Daphnia
Dose: 3.6 mg/l
Exposure time: 48 h
Sulfur 7704-34-9 Acute and prolonged toxicity for aquatic invertebrates:
EC0
Species: Daphnia magna (Water flea)
Dose: > 10,000 mg/l
Exposure time: 24 h
SECTION 13. DISPOSAL CONSIDERATIONS
Disposal : Dispose of container and unused contents in accordance with federal, state and
local requirements.
SECTION 14. TRANSPORT INFORMATION
CFR
Proper shipping name : PETROLEUM DISTILLATES, N.O.S.
UN-No. : 1268
Class : 3
Packing group : II
Hazard inducer : (Naphtha; Low boiling point naphtha)
TDG
Proper shipping name : PETROLEUM DISTILLATES, N.O.S.
UN-No. : UN1268
Class : 3
Packing group : II
Hazard inducer : (Naphtha; Low boiling point naphtha)
IATA Cargo Transport
UN UN-No. : UN1268
Description of the goods : PETROLEUM DISTILLATES, N.O.S.
(Naphtha; Low boiling point naphtha)
Class : 3
Packaging group : II
ICAO-Labels : 3
Packing instruction (cargo
aircraft)
: 364
Packing instruction (cargo
aircraft)
: Y341 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET NAPHTHA Page 12 of 14
12 / 14
IATA Passenger Transport
UN UN-No. : UN1268
Description of the goods : PETROLEUM DISTILLATES, N.O.S.
(Naphtha; Low boiling point naphtha)
Class : 3
Packaging group : II
ICAO-Labels : 3
Packing instruction
(passenger aircraft)
: 353
Packing instruction
(passenger aircraft)
: Y341
IMDG-Code
UN-No. : UN 1268
Description of the goods : PETROLEUM DISTILLATES, N.O.S.
(Naphtha; Low boiling point naphtha)
Class : 3
Packaging group : II
IMDG-Labels : 3
EmS Number : F-E S-E
Marine pollutant : No
SECTION 15. REGULATORY INFORMATION
OSHA Hazards : Flammable liquid
Moderate skin irritant
Severe eye irritant
Carcinogen
Teratogen
TSCA Status : On TSCA Inventory
DSL Status : All components of this product are on the Canadian DSL list.
SARA 311/312 Hazards : Fire Hazard
Acute Health Hazard
Chronic Health Hazard
SARA III US. EPA Emergency Planning and Community Right-To-Know Act (EPCRA) SARA Title III Section 313 Toxic
Chemicals (40 CFR 372.65) – Supplier Notification Required
Components CAS-No.
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6
Benzene 71-43-2
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4
Cyclohexane 110-82-7
Toluene 108-88-3
N-hexane 110-54-3
Xylene 1330-20-7
PENN RTK US. Pennsylvania Worker and Community Right-to-Know Law (34 Pa. Code Chap. 301-323) MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET NAPHTHA Page 13 of 14
13 / 14
Components CAS-No.
Heptane [and isomers] 142-82-5
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4
Benzene 71-43-2
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6
Sulfur 7704-34-9
Pentane 109-66-0
Naphtha; Low boiling point naphtha 8030-30-6
Xylene 1330-20-7
N-hexane 110-54-3
Toluene 108-88-3
Cyclohexane 110-82-7
MASS RTK US. Massachusetts Commonwealth’s Right-to-Know Law (Appendix A to 105 Code of Massachusetts Regulations
Section 670.000)
Components CAS-No.
Heptane [and isomers] 142-82-5
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4
Benzene 71-43-2
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6
Sulfur 7704-34-9
Naphtha; Low boiling point naphtha 8030-30-6
Xylene 1330-20-7
N-hexane 110-54-3
Toluene 108-88-3
Cyclohexane 110-82-7
NJ RTK US. New Jersey Worker and Community Right-to-Know Act (New Jersey Statute Annotated Section 34:5A-5)
Components CAS-No.
Heptane [and isomers] 142-82-5
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4
Benzene 71-43-2
1,2,4-Trimethylbenzene 95-63-6
Sulfur 7704-34-9
Naphtha; Low boiling point naphtha 8030-30-6
Xylene 1330-20-7
N-hexane 110-54-3 MATERIAL SAFETY DATA SHEET NAPHTHA Page 14 of 14
14 / 14
Toluene 108-88-3
Cyclohexane 110-82-7
CERCLA SECTION 103 and SARA SECTION 304 (RELEASE
TO THE ENVIROMENT)
The CERCLA definition of hazardous substances contains a
“petroleum exclusion” clause which exempts crude oil. Fractions of
crude oil, and products (both finished and intermediate) from the
crude oil refining process and any indigenous components of such
from the CERCLA Section 103 reporting requirements. However,
other federal reporting requirements, including SARA Section 304,
as well as the Clean Water Act may still apply.
California Prop. 65 : WARNING! This product contains a chemical known to the State of California to
cause cancer.
Ethylbenzene 100-41-4
Benzene 71-43-2
WARNING! This product contains a chemical known to the State of California to
cause birth defects or other reproductive harm.
Toluene 108-88-3
Benzene 71-43-2
SECTION 16. OTHER INFORMATION
Further information
The information provided in this Safety Data Sheet is correct to the best of our knowledge, information and belief at
the date of its publication. The information given is designed only as guidance for safe handling, use, processing,
storage, transportation, disposal and release and is not to be considered a warranty or quality specification. The
information relates only to the specific material designated and may not be valid for such material used in
combination with any other materials or in any process, unless specified in the text.
Template
Prepared by
: GWU mbH
Birlenbacher Str. 18
D-57078 Siegen
Germany
Telephone: +49-(0)271-88072-0
Revision Date : 01/27/2011
79, 80, 81, 83, 165, 264, 318, 1017, 1018, 1019, 1020, 1021, 1027, 1032, 1055, 1136, 1716

http://biotech.law.lsu.edu/blaw/dodd/corres/pdf/60505h_0189/60505h.pdf
DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL
WARNING LABELING SYSTEM
OFFICE OF THE
ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF DEFENSE
(FORCE MANAGEMENT AND PERSONNEL)
JUNE 1989.
.
June 1989
Department of Defense Hazardous Chemical Warning
Labeling System

J. Anderson

Assistant Secretary of Defense Force Management and Personnel

.
FOREWORD
,.,
This Handbook is issued under the authority of, and in accordance with, DoD Instruction 6050.5, ‘Hazardous Material Information System, ” January 25, 1978. This Handbook, the “Department of Defense Hazardous Chemical Warning Labeling System, establishes a standard label format and uniform labeling system throughout DoD for identifying hazardous materials used by DoD personnel.
In addition, this publication provides an additional training resource to help DoD comply with the training and worker information requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration’ s Hazard Communication Standard (29 C. F. Il. 1910.1200) .
This publication applies to the Office of the Secretary of Defense, the Military Departments, the Joint Staff, the unified
and Specified Commandsr and the Defense Agencies. It is effective immediately.

Forward recommended changes to this Handbook through appropriate
channels to:
Director, Safety and Occupational Health Policy
OASD (FM&P), ODASD (FSE&S)
RCIOITI 3A272, The Pentagon
Washington, D.C. 20301-4000
DoD Components may obtain copies of this Handbook through their
own publications channels. Other Federal Agencies and the public
may obtain copies from the U.S. Department of Commerce, National
4 Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, Springfield,

________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

more links on naptha:

http://search.google.dot.gov/dot /DOTSearchProcess.asp?q=naptha&g oB=&ie=&site=DOT_Pages&output=xm l_no_dtd&client=DOT_Pages&lr=&pr oxystylesheet=DOT_Pages&oe=

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petroleum_naphtha

________________________________________________________________________________

reference : http://cameochemicals.noaa.gov/chemical/12319

naphtha

Reactivity Alerts

  • Highly Flammable
Air & Water Reactions
Highly flammable. Insoluble in water.
Fire Hazard
Excerpt from GUIDE 128 [Flammable Liquids (Non-Polar / Water-Immiscible)]:HIGHLY FLAMMABLE: Will be easily ignited by heat, sparks or flames. Vapors may form explosive mixtures with air. Vapors may travel to source of ignition and flash back. Most vapors are heavier than air. They will spread along ground and collect in low or confined areas (sewers, basements, tanks). Vapor explosion hazard indoors, outdoors or in sewers. Runoff to sewer may create fire or explosion hazard. Containers may explode when heated. Many liquids are lighter than water. Substance may be transported hot. If molten aluminum is involved, refer to GUIDE 169. (ERG, 2008)
Inhalation of concentrated vapor may cause intoxication. Liquid is not very irritating to skin or eyes but may get into lungs by aspiration. (USCG, 1999)
Reactivity Profile
PETROLEUM NAPHTHA, [FLAMMABLE LIQUID LABEL] may be incompatible with strong oxidizing agents like nitric acid. Charring may occur followed by ignition of unreacted material and other nearby combustibles. In other settings, mostly unreactive. Not affected by aqueous solutions of acids, alkalis, most oxidizing agents, and most reducing agents. When heated sufficiently or when ignited in the presence of air, oxygen or strong oxidizing agents, burns exothermically to produce mostly carbon dioxide and water.
Belongs to the Following Reactive Group(s)

Response Recommendations

Firefighting
Fire Extinguishing Agents Not to Be Used: Water may be ineffective.Fire Extinguishing Agents: Foam, carbon dioxide, or dry chemical (USCG, 1999)
Non-Fire Response
Keep sparks, flames, and other sources of ignition away. Keep material out of water sources and sewers. Build dikes to contain flow as necessary. (AAR, 2003)
Skin: Wear appropriate personal protective clothing to prevent skin contact.Eyes: Wear appropriate eye protection to prevent eye contact.Wash skin: The worker should immediately wash the skin when it becomes contaminated.Remove: Work clothing that becomes wet or significantly contaminated should be removed and replaced.Change: No recommendation is made specifying the need for the worker to change clothing after the work shift. (NIOSH, 2003)
Eye: If this chemical contacts the eyes, immediately wash the eyes with large amounts of water, occasionally lifting the lower and upper lids. Get medical attention immediately. Contact lenses should not be worn when working with this chemical.Skin: If this chemical contacts the skin, promptly wash the contaminated skin with soap and water. If this chemical penetrates the clothing promptly remove the clothing and wash the skin with soap and water. Get medical attention promptly.Breathing: If a person breathes large amounts of this chemical, move the exposed person to fresh air at once. If breathing has stopped, perform mouth-to-mouth resuscitation. Keep the affected person warm and at rest. Get medical attention as soon as possible.Swallow: If this chemical has been swallowed, get medical attention immediately. (NIOSH, 1997)

Physical Properties

Molecular Formula: data unavailable
Flash Point: 20 ° F (approx.) (USCG, 1999)
Lower Explosive Limit (LEL): 0.9 % (USCG, 1999)
Upper Explosive Limit (UEL): 6 % (USCG, 1999)
Autoignition Temperature: 450 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Melting Point: data unavailable
Vapor Pressure: data unavailable
Vapor Density (Relative to Air): data unavailable
Specific Gravity: 0.74 at 68.0 ° F (USCG, 1999)
Boiling Point: 207 ° F at 760.0 mm Hg (USCG, 1999)
Molecular Weight: 110 (NIOSH, 2003)
Water Solubility: Insoluble (NIOSH, 2003)
IDLH: 1000 ppm (NIOSH, 2003)

AEGLs (Acute Exposure Guideline Levels)

No AEGL information available.

ERPGs (Emergency Response Planning Guidelines)

No ERPG information available.

PACs (Protective Action Criteria)

Chemical PAC-1 PAC-2 PAC-3
Petroleum spirits; (VM & P Naphtha, Ligroine, Paint solvent) (8032-32-4) 75 ppm 400 ppm 400 ppm LEL = 9000 ppm

_________________________________________________________________________________________

did you know that naptha is the key component in pavement sealer?
read all about it from the Federal Aviation Administration. now why would you put this stuff in your medicine?

http://www.faa.gov/airports/engineering/engineering_briefs/media/EB_68draft.pdf

______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

http://www.tricomcoatings.com/MSDS/Files/T0077.pdf

http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/healthguidelines/naphtha-coaltar/recognition.html

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